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Personality Can Be Assessed Discussion Personality Can Be Assessed Discussion Personality Can Be Assessed Discussion Description Compose 400 words or less discussion to respond the following: Discuss how personality can be assessed. Check plagiarism From Aristotle to Sigmund Freud and Abraham Maslow, countless theories and concepts for understanding personality have been proposed. Throughout history, these and other great minds sought to answer questions not only about what personality is and how best to describe it, but also what causes personality differences, including those that make people more or less functional and resilient. Some theories are still being tested, while others have fallen out of favor. Some compete while others complement one another. A look at some major ideas in personality psychology, both historical and recent, offers a sense of the many ways to think and talk about this complex subject. On This Page Five-Factor Theory Social Investment Theory Cognitive-Affective Theory Narrative Identity Psychodynamic Theories Humanistic Theories Five-Factor Theory: Personality Is Based on Biology Using the Big Five traits (or five-factor model) as a foundation, Five-Factor Theory proposes that the development of common personality traits is largely determined by biological factors, especially genetics. This view was inspired in part by research indicating that ratings on measures of personality are influenced by one’s genes and that other, non-genetic developmental factors (such as adoptive parents) seem to play a surprisingly small role. The theory’s creators distinguish enduring personality traits from “characteristic adaptations,” such as attitudes or strivings, that are shaped by one’s innate disposition as well as external forces. Who created Five-Factor Theory? The theory was first proposed in the 1990s by psychologists Robert McCrae and Paul Costa Jr. McCrae and Costa also created the NEO Personality Inventory in the 1970s What is the difference between Five-Factor Theory and the Five-Factor Model? Though they have similar names, the model (which is embraced by many researchers) is a way of describing how personality traits are Personality Can Be Assessed Discussion organized—that is, into the Big Five personality dimensions. The theory is a way of explaining how personality traits develop and change. Social Investment Theory: Biology and Experience Shape Personality While personality traits are clearly related to genetics, one’s inheritance does not account for all personality differences. The environmental influences shared by siblings, such as a certain kind of parenting or childhood household, appear to play a minor part. Other factors, potentially many, must be at work. One view, sometimes called Social Investment Theory, proposes that individuals’ personal investment in new social roles, such as by becoming a spouse or starting a job, helps explain personality development and change over time. In new roles, people are exposed to costs and benefits of behaving in certain ways, potentially shifting a person’s way of being over time—even given that the person’s personality is influenced by genetics. Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Personality Can Be Assessed Discussion Who created Social Investment Theory? Multiple researchers have helped develop it. One proponent is psychologist Brent Roberts, who with colleagues in the ’00s, wrote about a “social investment principle.” (They have also called their concept the Neo-Socioanalytic Model.) What kinds of social roles might lead to personality change? In a new job, one may be rewarded for being punctual and putting in work to complete tasks, or incentivized to get along with others. Interpersonal or familial roles, such as being in a new relationship, may also affect personality traits. Can personality lead us to pick certain roles? Cognitive-Affective Theory: Personality and Situations Even someone who shows certain tendencies—to act aggressively or passively compared to others, for example—won’t necessarily behave the same way in every situation or kind of social interaction. (The authority of the person one confronts, or whether one is in public, may make a difference.) Some personality theorists have sought to weave situational factors into how personality is conceived. In one theory, the cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS), “cognitive-affective mediating units” are thought to interact with each other and with the characteristics of different situations to produce the patterns of behavior that distinguish individuals. These “units” may include psychological factors such as an individuals’ expectations and beliefs, goals and values, and emotional responses. Order Now