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NUR 660 Week 11 Discussion 1 Team C Reproductive Disorders/STIs NUR 660 Week 11 Discussion 1 Team C Reproductive Disorders/STIs NUR 660 Week 11 Discussion 1 Team C Reproductive Disorders/STIs 1.     Compare the typical signs of acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, and acute nonbacterial prostatitis. Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate and can be acute or chronic (Berkowitz, 2020, p. 169). In acute bacterial prostatitis, typical signs include fever, chills, and dysuria. Patients can also experience urgency and frequency, as well as back pain. Chronic bacterial prostatitis can present with frequency, urgency, dysuria, abdominal and back pain, and can additionally cause recurrent UTIs. Acute nonbacterial prostatitis can have above signs, usually with decreased systemic signs, but there will not be a positive bacterial growth in the culture (Berkowitz, 2020, p. 169). 2.     Compare BPH and prostatic cancer in terms of the characteristic location of the tumor and the early signs. What are the risk factors for each condition? Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) is when the prostate enlarges or hypertrophies. In prostate cancer, the gland also enlarges usually in the posterior portion, but can further spread to other parts of the body. BPH cannot spread therefore it is benign. Due to the urethra running through the prostate, BPH includes signs of an obstruction such as frequency, hesitancy, dribbling, and decreased force of flow (Hubert & VanMeter, 2018, p. 519). Initially, there is often no obstruction with prostate cancer so patient can be symptomatic. Signs that may develop include blood in the urine, difficulty with erection, pain in hips or back, loss of bladder control, and other problems with urination (National Cancer Institute, n.d.). The risk factors for BPH are age, ethnicity, familial history, obesity, diabetes, inactive lifestyle, and heart disease. The risk factors for prostate cancer include age, race, North American or Norther European location, familial history, nutrition, lifestyle or exposure to Agent Orange (Prostate Cancer Foundation, n.d.). 3.     Describe each of the following: (1) second-degree uterine prolapse, (2) cystocele, and (3) retroversion of the uterus. Explain the secondary problems that may occur with second- or third-degree prolapse.             A uterine prolapse is when the uterus is displaced and begins to move downward into the vagina. A second-degree prolapse is when the it has slipped down to the level of the vaginal opening (Hubert & VanMeter, 2020, p. 525). A cystocele is when the bladder moves into the vagina, known as a bladder prolapse. A healthy uterus is mildly tipped forward, anteverted, and bent forward over the bladder, anteflexed. If it is tipped backward, this is known as a retroverted uterus. Due to the weak pelvic floor and surrounding tissue and muscle, the secondary problems that can occur with a second or third-degree prolapse include secondary prolapses, such as the bladder (cystocele) and rectum (rectocele). Other side effects can include changes in bladder and bowel function, pain or discomfort with intercourse, and poor body image (Cleveland Clinic, 2019). 4.     How can infection in the vagina can cause PID? What signs and symptoms would you expect? Why is this considered a serious condition?             When the bacteria enters the vagina, usually arising from STDs, it can travel through cervix, into the uterus, and further into the fallopian tubes (Hubert & VanMeter, 2018). This invasion of bacteria triggers an inflammatory response. Signs and symptoms of PID include vaginitis or cervicitis, abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, purulent discharge, fever, leukocytosis, and peritonitis. This is serious condition because complications include Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, tubo-ovarian abscess, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and septicemia (Berkowitz, 2020, p. 174). 5.     Describe the causative organisms for (1) chlamydial infection, (2) gonorrhea, (3) syphilis, (4) trichomoniasis, and (5) genital herpes.             The causative pathogen of chlamydial infection includes the bacterium C. trachomatis, a gram-negative obligate parasite. Gonorrhea is caused by N. gonorrohoeae, a gram-negative aerobic diplococcus. The bacterium, Treponema pallidum, an anaerobic spirochete is responsible for syphilis. Trichomoniasis is caused by an anaerobic flagellated protozoan called trichomonas vaginalis. Lastly, the viral infection of genital herpes is the herpes simplex 2 virus (Hubert & VanMeter, 2018, p. 539). 6.     Compare the early manifestations of chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, and genital herpes. Why are these STIs difficult to control (that is, why is it hard to reduce the incidence)?         The early signs of STIs include:   Chlamydia: mild dysuria, discharge, or asymptomatic Gonorrhea: dysuria, discharge, can be mild or asymptomatic Trichomoniasis: asymptomatic or discharge and dysuria Syphilis: Primary: painless ulcer or chancre at site of entry. Secondary: rash, fever, headache Genital herpes: vesicles and ulcers It is difficult to reduce STIs because of poor condom use, increased use of hormonal therapy for contraception, divorce rates, multiple sexual partners, alcohol abuse, use of date rape drugs, increased drug resistance organisms, asymptomatic and spreading infection, poor report rates, and so on (Hubert & Van Meter, 2018, p. 538). 7.     Describe three factors predisposing patients to vaginal candidiasis and identify the causative organism.             Vaginal candidiasis is a form of vaginitis causes by C. albicans. It is a yeast infection and not sexually transmitted. Three factors predisposing patients include the use of antibiotics because of their disruption to normal flora, immune-deficiency, and diabetes due to increased glucose levels (Hubert & VanMeter, 2018, p. 528). Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: NUR 660 Week 11 Discussion 1 Team C Reproductive Disorders/STIs Resources: Berkowitz, A. (2020). Clinical Pathophysiology Made Ridiculously Simple. MedMaster, Inc. Cleveland Clinic. (2019, December). Uterine Prolapse. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/16030-uterine-prolapse Hubert, R. J., & VanMeter, K. C. (2018). Pathophysiology Online for Gould’s Pathophysiology for the Health Professions(6th ed.). Elsevier National Cancer Institute. (n.d.). Understanding Prostate Changes: A Health Guide for Men. https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate/understanding-prostate-changes#prostate-cancer Prostate Cancer Foundation. (n.d.). Prostate Cancer Risk Factors. https://www.pcf.org/patient-resources/family-cancer-risk/prostate-cancer-risk-factors/ Team C Reproductive Disorders/STIs Compare the typical signs of acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, and acute nonbacterial prostatitis. Compare BPH and prostatic cancer in terms of the characteristic location of the tumor and the early signs. What are the risk factors for each condition? Describe each of the following: (1) second-degree uterine prolapse, (2) cystocele, and (3) retroversion of the uterus. Explain the secondary problems that may occur with second- or third-degree prolapse. How can infection in the vagina can cause PID? What signs and symptoms would you expect? Why is this considered a serious condition? Describe the causative organisms for (1) chlamydial infection, (2) gonorrhea, (3) syphilis, (4) trichomoniasis, and (5) genital herpes. Compare the early manifestations of chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, and genital herpes. Why are these STDs difficult to control (that is, why is it hard to reduce the incidence)? Describe three factors predisposing patients to vaginal candidiasis and identify the causative organism. 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