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NUR 660 Week 11 Discussion 1 Team B Urinary Disorders NUR 660 Week 11 Discussion 1 Team B Urinary Disorders NUR 660 Week 11 Discussion 1 Team B Urinary Disorders Explain how decreased fluid intake or dehydration predisposes to calculi in the urinary tract. A decrease in fluid intake or dehydration can lead to a renal stone because there tends to be a higher concentration of filtrate (VanMeter & Hubert 2019 p.503). Once any solid material or debris forms, deposits continue to build upon this nidus or focus in eventually form a large mass (VanMeter & Hubert 2019 p.503). This mass is a renal stone. Renal stones can range in size and material composition dependent on the diet and activity of the individual. Explain what the presence of the following in the urine indicates: blood (microscopic and gross), protein, pus, casts, and glucose. A urinalysis can determine many things about the health of somebody’s kidneys and or bladder. Small blood in the urine and can be an indication of inflammation, infection, or tumors of the urinary tract; wow that large amounts of blood are known as gross hematuria can increase indicate an increase in glomerular permeability or hemorrhage in the urinary tract (VanMeter & Hubert 2019 p.495). Protein in the urine can indicate kidney damage. However, there is also a small amount of protein in your urine as a waste product (American Kidney Fund (AKF), 2020). Protein in the urine can also indicate high levels of stress pregnancy and dehydration (American Kidney Fund (AKF), 2020). Pus in the urine can be an indication of an infection within the kidneys or the bladder. Casts are microscopic size molds of tubules, consisting of one or more cells, bacteria, protein, and someone who can educate inflammation of the kidney tubules (VanMeter & Hubert 2019 p.495). Glucose found in the urine can indicate when diabetes Mellitus is not well controlled (VanMeter & Hubert 2019 p.495). Typically when there is glucose in the year in, ketones are indicated when diabetes Mellitus is not well-controlled (VanMeter & Hubert 2019 p.495). Compare the signs/symptoms of cystitis and pyelonephritis. Which of these indicate that kidney involvement (local or systemic) is occurring? Cystitis is inflammation of the lining of the bladder. Some signs and symptoms of cystitis are urgencies, a burning sensation when urinating, frequency, hematuria, foul-smelling urine, pelvic discomfort, bladder pressure, and a low-grade fever (Mayo Clinic, 2020). These signs and symptoms indicate a local infection. Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021). Some signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis are chills, fever, pain in your back, side, or groin, nausea, vomiting, cloudy, dark, bloody, or foul-smelling urine, frequent, and painful urination (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2021). These signs and symptoms indicate a systematic issue. Where is the urinary bladder located relative to the uterus and rectum in a woman? Briefly explain two possible implications of this location. The urinary bladder is located in front of the uterus. Starting from front to back, the bladder since first than the uterus than the rectum in women. “The bladder is located in the lesser pelvis when empty and extends into the abdominal cavity when full” (Shermadou 2021). Because of its location, the urinary bladder can be impacted by pregnancy or by constipation located in the rectum and can put pressure and increase discomfort for the individual. The location of the urinary bladder can also impact how the uterus suit and, depending on how the uterus is positioned, can cause dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation or dyspareunia, or painful intercourse (VanMeter & Hubert 2019 p.527). The urinary bladder can also be impacted by the removal or displacement, or prolapse of the uterus. How the uterus is affected can either place pressure on the urinary bladder or displace the bladder. Why does male anatomy make it likely that a reproductive system infection may extend into the urinary system? Infection may likely extend to the urinary system in a male reproductive system due to its function and structure. Due to which structure did the urethra is both a pathway for sperm and urine to be moved from the body to an external environment. Similar to the esophagus in the trachea in the throat, where there is a flap to make sure the food moves down the esophagus rather than down to the trachea, there is a structure similar to the pathway for urine and sperm within the male genitalia. At a point in the ampulla, a structure prevents sperm from going into the pathway when urinating (VanMeter & Hubert 2019 p.527). The same is true for when male ejaculates. If a male contracts an STD or develops a UTI, it can affect both the reproductive in urinary systems due to the structural and functional state of the male genitalia. Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: NUR 660 Week 11 Discussion 1 Team B Urinary Disorders Explain the difference in causes of frequent voiding associated with cystitis versus those associated with renal insufficiency. Frequency voiding related to cystitis is due to inflammation related to infection, which sets off the urinary nerve. This nerve set off ab individual’s urge to void. Renal insufficiency is “poor function of the kidneys that may be due to a reduction in blood-flow to the kidneys caused by renal artery disease” (UC Davis Health, Vascular Center 2020). In renal insufficiency, the individual will experience oliguria or lower urinary output due to the lack of perfusion to the kidneys. How might urinary tract infections lead to calculus formation? Typically the opposite is true that a calculus formation can lead to urinary tract infection (UTI). However, in some cases, a UTI might lead to a calculus formation. Some factors for the development of urinary stones are increased salt concentration, either by increased excretion of calcium or uric acid salts or by decreased urinary citrate excretion (Preminger, 2021). These factors can be the result of a UTI leading to stone formation. References American Kidney Fund (AKF). (2020). Protein in Urine (Proteinuria) Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments. Retrieved November 9, 2021, from  https://www.kidneyfund.org/kidney-disease/kidney-problems/protein-in-urine.html Mayo Clinic. (2020, May 14). Cystitis – Symptoms and causes. Retrieved November 9, 2021, from  https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cystitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20371306 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2021, November 9). Symptoms & Causes of Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis). Retrieved November 9, 2021, from  https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/kidney-infection-pyelonephritis/symptoms-causes Preminger, G. M. (2021, November 4). Urinary Calculi. Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved November 9, 2021, from  https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/urinary-calculi/urinary-calculi Shermadou ES, Rahman S, Leslie SW. Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Bladder. [Updated 2021 Jul 31]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK531465/ VanMeter, K. C., & Hubert, R. J. (2018) Study guide for Gould’s pathophysiology for the health professions. (6th ed.) Elsevier Saunders. UC Davis Health, Vascular Center> Renal Insufficiency | UC Davis Health Vascular Center. Copyright UC Regents. For More Information Regarding the University of California’s Copyright Terms, Visit  Https://Www.Ucop.Edu/Services/Terms.Html. Retrieved November 9, 2021, from  https://health.ucdavis.edu/vascular/diseases/renal_insufficiency.html Please use this thread to create your reply posts, as indicated in the forum instructions. To ensure you do not miss any questions, please copy and paste all questions into your discussion post. Team B Urinary Disorders Explain how decreased fluid intake or dehydration predisposes to calculi in the urinary tract. Explain what the presence of the following in the urine indicates: blood (microscopic and gross), protein, pus, casts, and glucose. Compare the signs/symptoms of cystitis and pyelonephritis. Which of these indicate that kidney involvement (local or systemic) is occurring? Where is the urinary bladder located relative to the uterus and rectum in a woman. Briefly explain two possible implications of this location. Why does male anatomy make it likely that a reproductive system infection may extend into the urinary system? Explain the difference in causes of frequent voiding associated with cystitis versus those associated with renal insufficiency. How might urinary tract infections lead to calculus formation? Posting to the Discussion Forum Highlight and copy your assigned question from the list. Select Reply. Select Advanced. Delete the subject line from the subject line field. Type your assigned question number (e.g. “Question # 1”) into the subject line field. Paste your assigned question into the reply text field. Create your response. Select Post when completed.   Order Now