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NUR 601 Week 7 Assignment 3: Concept Analysis Final Paper NUR 601 Week 7 Assignment 3: Concept Analysis Final Paper NUR 601 Week 7 Assignment 3: Concept Analysis Final Paper Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore, understand and clarify the concept of pain management. This analysis will help define pain management and will in turn provide better methods of effective pain management in today’s society, hence reducing the uncertainty and promote consistency in using the concept. The writer intends to clarify the defining attributes of failed pain management and identify antecedents for better pain management and the possible consequences of pain mismanagement. Pain management is an essential component of healthcare that is hard to control. Pain is seen in many types including chronic, acute, surgical, phantom, and managing pain depends on the type and severity. Because pain is a real feeling, it is what the patient says it is. Using the pain scale scores reported by the patient, providers can identify the severity of their pain and treat it from their perspective. There are various ways to treat pain such as pharmacologically with various medications or integrate other treatment options. Some methods include acupuncture, healing touch, massage, and aromatherapy. The history of pain management practically began om the 1940s after the number of wounded veterans increased (Bernard, 2018). Before the 20th century, the pain was nonpharmacological, the pain was not such a big deal, and if anyone was ever in pain, local remedies or herbs were used. However, in the 20th century, the pain became mainly pharmacological. Bernard, 2018) reports that perceptions of undertreatment led to increased use of opioids, at first for those with cancer-related pain and then later for noncancer pain without the multidimensional care that was intended. Today, opioid misuse is one of the biggest problems we face in the U.S and all over the world. The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reported about 70,000 deaths of drug use as of 2019. This problem continues to grow especially now in the times of the pandemic. Explanation of pain management McEwen and Wills (2018) explain the theory of pain as free nerve endings acting as receptors that accept sensory input and transmit the information along specific nerve fibers. Kaplan (2020) states that Pain is a physiological response to a perceived threat. Pain management reflects attitudes to those in pain. In the 1940s to 1960s, there were increased cases of disabled veterans that were wounded, and this led to a new focus on pain and its treatment. The view on pain has shifted back and forth between a physiological construct to a person whose pain perception may be related to social, emotional, and cultural factors. It is real even though not always appropriate. The human body is incredibly well programmed to heal after injury. Why this concept was chosen In my life, there have been circumstances that have required my pain to be well managed for me to go about my business. I had three cesarean sections all of which required good pain management to go through those surgeries, as well as be able to stand up and ambulate around the unit postpartum. If it had not been for the good or strong medication that I received during those times, I would not have made it out of the hospital. Review of Literature Pain is a noun 1. Physical suffering or discomfort caused by injury or illness. 2. Careful effort; great care or trouble. Pain is a verb 1. Cause mental or physical pain too. (Dictionary.com,n.d). a. The medical dictionary describes Pain management to encompass pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and other approaches to prevent, reduce and stop pain sensations. Pharmacological options for pain management would include analgesics such as Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), Narcotics, Antidepressants, anticonvulsants. Nonpharmacological options include relaxation techniques like yoga, meditation. McEwen and Wills (2018) talk about a common pain theory called the Gate Control Theory. They say through the gating mechanism in the spinal cord, pain impulses are transmitted through the periphery of the body by nerve fibers, then the impulses go to the dorsal horns of the spinal cord to an area called the substania gelatinosa. Moayedi and Davis (2013) describe other theories about pain from previous centuries, which include Specificity and Intensity. According to the Specificity Theory, there are specific receptors and sensory fibers that are specific to one stimulus. The Intensity Theory describes pain being an emotion that is based on the strength of the stimulus. Management is a noun and can be defined as “the process of dealing with or controlling things or people” (Management, n.d.). Management can be interchanged with control, management, and relief. Control is a noun that can be defined as “the power to influence or people’s behavior or the course of events (Control, n.d.). Manage is a verb that can be defined as “to succeed in surviving or attaining one’s aims especially against heavy odds; copes” (Manage, n.d.). Chronicle pain management articles Grandhe, R., Souzdalnitski, D., & Gritsenko, K. (2016). New chronic pain treatments in the outpatient setting: Review article. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 20(5). doi:10.1007/s11916-016-0563-y Pal, S., Dixit, R., Yousuf,, U. A., Ram, S., Ballas, S. K., Abas, A. B., . . . Moe, S. (2020). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in sickle cell disease. Issue 3. (3). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012762.pub2 Ghai, B., Malhotra, N., & Bajwa, S. S. (2020). Telemedicine for chronic pain management During COVID-19 pandemic. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 64(6), 456. doi:10.4103/ija.ija_652_20 Chronic pain management education articles Budge, C., & Taylor, M. (may, 2020, vol. 26 issue 4, p30, 5 p.). Experiences and self-management of chronic pain. 26(4), 5p, 30. Pal, S., Dixit, R., Yousuf,, U. A., Ram, S., Ballas, S. K., Abas, A. B., . . . Moe, S. (2020). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in sickle cell disease. Issue 3.(3). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012762.pub2 Bair, M. J. (2011). Learning from our learners: Implications for pain management education in medical schools. Pain Medicine, 12(8), 1139-1141. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01207.x Defining Attributes Walker and Avant (2011) state that Defining attributes are characteristics that reoccur throughout literature. In a study by Stewart el al., (2014) about older adults’ persistent pain self-management (PPSM), they explain that there are five attributes of older adults’ PPSM, which are multidimensional process, active individuals, personal development, response to symptoms, and symptom. Pain is an emotional subjective perception, is related to neurological functions and cognitive thinking. When pain is attended to at the right time, pain management is the successful alleviation of suffering. Model Case Walker and Avant (2011) present a model case as being a case that has all of the defining attributes enclosed. The model case presented is from a real-life. Ms. Rodriguez a 65-year-old Hispanic, female, presents herself to the chronic pain care clinic. She was diagnosed with degenerative disc disease two years ago. Her health has not been stable throughout the past two years. On the day of her appointment, she was feeling well and felt that her pain was being managed. Her treatment plan includes taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, using hot packs during active pain periods, limited steroid injections when she has breakthrough pain, actively stretching daily, and positive cognitive therapies during times of pain that he was taught early in the diagnosis. She is kept in mind what triggered her pain that it would become unbearable. She is compliant with medications and prescribed treatments and remains pain-free. Ms. Rodriguez’s model case enclosed all of the defining attributes of pain management. It was in her perception that her pain was managed well by being Due to her compliance, with the prescribed treatment, she was completely alleviated of suffering. Borderline Case AA is a 42-year-old white male who presented to his Physician’s office with right arm pain after a fall 2 weeks ago. Upon assessment, NUR 601 Week 7 Assignment 3 Concept Analysis Final Paper AA needed a sling to immobilize his dislocated shoulder. He was scheduled to see an orthopedic doctor, and in the meantime, the physician prescribed Ibuprofen which is a Nonsteroid Anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). He was advised to avoid using his arm for any heavy lifting or activities. During his appointment with the orthopedic, he reported severe pain and that the Ibuprofen was not reliving his pain. However, it was noted that against medical advice, he had been using his arm to lift heavy objects which caused more pain. He stated that he tried heat therapy, but it was not helping his pain. This case meets the criteria because the patient continues to complain of pain regardless of all the interventions applied, his pain is not alleviated. Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: NUR 601 Week 7 Assignment 3: Concept Analysis Final Paper Related Case According to Walker and Avant (2011), related cases are similar and do not have all the defining attributes. Another related concept would be Agony. Agony is a noun that means extreme physical or mental suffering. This case is an example of this concept. Mrs. Andrews 32 years old presented to the center crying uncontrollably about the miscarriage she had six months ago. This was her last hope at having a child. She has lost 20 pounds since the loss and has not been able to come to terms with this loss. Although she is not in physical pain, mentally she is suffering. Pain can be physical or mental. Fava et al., describe Mental pain as a post-traumatic stress disorder that may occur out of grief and produces a variety of bodily and psychological symptoms, and interferes with our ability to function effectively. Mental pain management can be treated with other kinds of therapies such as grief therapy. Depressed patients frequently report that treatment with antidepressant drugs yields substantial relief of their mental pain Fava et al (2019). Illegitimate Case  In an illegitimate case, the concept and fundamental characteristics are used out of context (Walker & Avant). Take, for instance, a daughter who is trying to catch a flight with her elderly mother, however, when they get to the airport, the mother tells the daughter that she forgot her good luck sweater back at home. The daughter tells her that she should have remembered it before they left the house, mother starts to yell and cries that she cannot get on the plane without it. The daughter tells the mother that they cannot go back because then they will miss the flight. The mother then states, “I wish your brother was here, he would have gone back and gotten it for me. He respects me and does whatever he is told. Upset, the daughter leaves at the airport and heads back to collect the sweater. Before leaving she tells her mother this is all an inconvenience. The daughter knows that she would have been sad all flight long knowing that she could have not helped her elderly mother. She can contact her husband who meets her halfway the ride back home with the good luck sweater, and she returns to the airport with her sweater even though they almost missed the flight. In this case, the mother is not crying because she is in pain. Mother just does not know what it entails leaving the airport and driving back home for just a sweater. The daughter just feels obligated to help her mother so that they can have a good and happy trip with no tears or complaints. The sister feels obligated to help her brother because their mother would have and because she genuinely loves her brother.   Contrary Case A contrary case is a well-defined instance that is not represented by the concept (Walker and Avant 2011). An example of such a concept is Mr. Lorenzo, a 24-year-old who is being seen at the center after falling off a forklift at work. During the examination, he is happy and does not show any signs of pain. He never at any one time refers to the broken hand that occurred after the fall, he is talking about the last night’s game and how his team lost by a few points. The characteristics from this case do not reflect any defining attributes of pain management. Invented Case Walker and Avant (2011) describe an invented case as a concept being taken out of context of our own experience. This case is an example of an invented case. Prostate is a 70year old male who lives in Testicles, Spanish territory. He is married to Urethra and they have a son Bladder. Prostate is a farmer by profession and has a BPH degree in Agriculture specializing in vegetables and fruits gardening and harvesting mostly sweet potatoes, Zucchini, cucumber, and grapefruits. He made concentrated grapefruit juice from his grapefruits. A few months ago, he noticed that his grapefruits were getting bigger than usual even though it was not raining much. He worried about his fruits. When it rained, he spent the nights hearing the rain dribbling on the roof and one day the rain went through the roof onto the bed leading to his wife Urethra’s horror Screams! He went to see his physician, Dr. Flomax who helped him find a medication to relax the cloud muscles for good rain flow into his garden. Prostate was assured that his problem was benign; so, he was prescribed Avodart fertilizers to use daily to stimulate the rain flow and then follow up in three months. Mr. Prostate was warned not to mix the fertilizer with the grapefruit because this could cause toxicity to the entire garden. When he got home, though he told his wife that he hated that nurse Cystoscope. At his three months follow-up, he showed up at the office, he reported no more dribbling on the roof, he sleeps better, and the fruits are close to normal. He reported that though he misses the grapefruit juice he is happy without it. At his appointment Prostate reported only positive results about his garden and fruit. He acknowledged understanding his treatment regimen and precautions. He determined to continue the fertilization to live long and take care of his garden. This case meets the criteria because it is made out of human experience. Antecedents and consequences Walker and Avant (2011) explain Antecedents as a precursor that happens before the concept occurs. About pain management, antecedents include an event or illness that causes pain on the patient. The patient recognizes the painful stimuli, then they physically or mentally feel pain. Consequences are described as instances that happen because of a concept (Walker and Avant, 2011). They are the outcome we see when a concept takes place. Consequences to follow pain management would be to consult a physician about the pain so that the right pain management regiment would be established. Consequences could bring about positive outcomes where the patient after they seek treatment, or it could be negative where the pain is not relieved. Empirical Referents Empirical referents of the concept are a group of ideas that occur or represent the concept itself (Walker and Avant, 2011). Empirical referents are the same as defining attributes. Looking back at defining attributes, we know that pain is subjective and also an emotion. The empirical referents for pain management would be monitoring for signs and symptoms of pain using the pain scale, moaning, grimacing, verbal complaint, facial expressions. A pain scale is a numerical tool commonly used by medical staff to rate patients’ pain. It goes from zero to ten with zero being a patient with no pain at all, and ten being the worst pain the patient has ever experienced. This is a great way to communicate pain with verbal patients. It is the same scale used to follow up after an intervention has been initiated. For patients who cannot voice their complaints, facial expressions can be the best tool to use. Patients in pain will frown, moan, rub the area where it hurts, appear to be tense and rigid. All these are signs and symptoms of pain that call for an intervention. A pain management concept analysis enhances nurses’ ability to assess patients thoroughly and identify any signs and symptoms of pain and look for interventions soon enough to prevent the patient from being in agony. Due to individual perception of pain by each patient, the outcomes will vary from one patient to another. Chitnis et al, (2020) state that uncontrolled pain increases the length of post-anesthesia care hospital stay and increases the risk of hospital readmission, resulting in significant economic impact. On the other hand, patients whose pain is well-controlled in the postoperative period are more likely to be discharged as scheduled and go back to their normal lives promptly. Conclusion A pain management concept analysis enhances nurses’ ability to assess more accurately their clients’ levels of pain, thus identifying the causes, what exacerbates the pain and how to effectively treat it. As McEwen and Wills (2018) explain that by preventing and managing pain, the gates will remain closed, as it is believed that when in pain, the impulses travel to the substania gelatinosa. Effective pain management also helps in minimizing opioid overdose. The promising news is that healthcare workers are working tirelessly to improve the way pain is treated, through monitoring, assessment and administering the right medication and the right dosage. Since there are a lot of drug misuse deaths, patients are also receiving education on how to use their prescribed medication, and to reach out to their prescribers when these medications do not seem effective. References Bernard, S. A., Chelminski, P. R., Ives, T. J., & Ranapurwala, S. I. (2018). Management of pain in the United States—A Brief history and implications for the opioid epidemic. Health Services Insights, 11, 117863291881944. doi:10.1177/1178632918819440 Control. (n.d.). Retrieved March 21, 2021, from http://www.dictionary.com/ Manage. (n.d.). Retrieved March 21, 2021, from http://www.dictionary.com/ Management. (n.d.). Retrieved March 21, 2021, from http://www.dictionary.com/ Chitnis, S. S., Tang, R., & Mariano, E. R. (2020). The role of regional analgesia in personalized postoperative pain management. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 73(5), 363-371. doi:10.4097/kja.20323 Fava, G., Tomba, E., Brakemeier, E., Carrozzino, D., Cosci, F., Eöry, A., . . . Guidi, J. (2019). Mental pain as a transdiagnostic patient-reported outcome measure. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 88(6), 341-349. doi:10.1159/000504024 Kaplan, A. (sep/oct 2020). What is Pain? Exercises and education can help individuals with persistent symptoms to overcome and adapt to pain. Rehab Management: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Rehabilitation Sep/Oct2020, Vol. 33 Issue 6, P8 2p., 33(6), 2p, 8-8. McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2018). Chapter 15. In Theoretical basis for nursing. (pp. 350-352). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer. Overdose death rates. (2021, February 25). Retrieved April 04, 2021, from https://www.drugabuse.gov/drug-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates Pain management. (n.d.). Retrieved March 21, 2021, from https://medical- dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/pain+management Walker, L. O., & Avant, K. C. (2011). Concept analysis. In Strategies for theory construction in nursing (5thed., pp. 157-178). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Week 7 Assignment 3: Concept Analysis Final Paper Value: 100 points Due: Day 7 Grading Category: Concept Analysis Paper Instructions Submit your final concept analysis paper, including all the references, using APA format. Review the Concept Analysis Paper Assignment Instructions (Word) if needed. Please refer to the instructions for the grading breakdown for each section. Please refer to this Grading Rubric for details on how this activity will be graded. To Submit Your Assignment: Select the Add Submissions button. Drag or upload your file to the File Picker. Select Save Changes. Writing Assignment Rubric Note: Scholarly resources are defined as evidence-based practice, peer-reviewed journals; textbook (do not rely solely on your textbook as a reference); and National Standard Guidelines. Review assignment instructions, as this will provide any additional requirements that are not specifically listed on the rubric. Concept Analysis Paper Assignment Instructions Purpose and Process You will choose a concept for analysis from the list that is provided in the NU601 Moodle site. Each student must select a different concept for their concept analysis assignment. In other words, no concept can be selected by more than one student. The concepts are related to nursing practice, education, and/or administration. For example, if you are planning to be a family nurse practitioner, you might choose the concept of family support. In this assignment, you will review the literature related to the study of your concept from different disciplines. Doing so will help illuminate the meaning of the concept. View it as helping you build the foundation for your nursing research proposal in NU 630, Advanced Nursing Research, and adding to your body of knowledge. For example, a former student who planned to specialize in women’s health, chose the concept of postpartum depression for her concept analysis for an NU601 course. For NU630, she focused her research proposal on the same concept. Paper Guidelines Introduction (5 points): This section informs the reader of the purpose and focus of your paper. In addition, this section also explains what a concept analysis is, according to the literature. Then, describe why you chose your concept and its application to nursing research and another area in nursing, such as nursing administration, nursing practice, or nursing education. Review of the Literature (15 points): This is the main section of your paper which identifies all uses of the concept. First, begin with the dictionary and lay sources, then move to academic literature. Review the nursing literature related your topic, as well as two other disciplines, such as biology, psychology, or law. The selected literature should mainly be scholarly, peer reviewed journal articles and textbooks. Provide a brief summary of each of these articles and connect them together as a synthesis. For example, for postpartum depression, you would review the literature in nursing, and two other possible disciplines such as psychology and social work. Generally, use references published within the last five years, unless there is a landmark piece of literature (for example, Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relationships). Use at least three scholarly articles from each discipline. Write a synthesis of these articles (for example, compare and contrast focus and/or findings). For more information, examine Nursing: How to Write a Literature Review. Defining attributes (15 points): From your literature review of uses of the concept (sources such as the dictionary and the thesaurus [lay sources] and academic articles), determine the defining attributes of your concept. In order to accomplish this, make sure to do the following for each of your selected sources (academic articles, dictionaries, textbooks):(1) read them entirely, (2) highlight or underline the definitions in each source to keep track of the various definitions used to define your concept, and (3) extract the definitions from all sources for a comprehensive list of attributes that define your specific concept. Two or three defining attributes may exist for one concept, whereas for another concept, there could be seven or eight defining attributes. Do a comprehensive review of the literature within your selected sources prior to deciding on the final list of defining attributes, to capture the essence or meaning of your concept. Definition of the Concept (5 points): Write a definition that incorporates all the concept’s defining attributes in one-to-two paragraphs. Cases (35 points): Ensure your cases fit your designated case types. Also, be sure to provide a rationale for why your case meets that criterion. In the example of a model case, first describe what a model case is according to the literature, then describe your model case and why it meets that criterion. Be specific. You should follow this method with each of your cases. Model Case: (15 points) Borderline, Related, Contrary, Illegitimate, and Invented Cases. (Each section is worth 4 points; 20 points for this component.) Antecedents and Consequences (Each section is worth 5 points; 10 points for this component.): Antecedents are the events/required elements that occur before the concept can happen. Consequences are the events/outcomes that take place after the concept occurs. Antecedents and consequences cannot be the same. They also cannot be the concept itself, but the events/required elements that take place before or after the concept is evident. Empirical Referents (5 points): Describe how the concept is measured by two research tools. Define the concept that the researcher used and the purpose and structure of the tool (that is, number of items), and then note one study where the tool was used and include its purpose, sample, method, and main findings. This information can come from your literature review. Summary (5 points): Summarize your paper and do not provide new information. You should not leave the reader in suspense, as if there would be a sequel. Format (5 points): Your paper should use APA formatting for its all components and formal writing mechanics, and be free of spelling and grammar errors. Other Requirements Your paper should be 10 to 12 pages long, typed in a Times New Roman 12-point font, and have 1-inch margins. The paper’s length does not include the title page and references list. Do not include appendices. You will have following three milestones for your concept analysis paper so that your instructor can provide you with feedback on its development: Concept analysis outline: It includes the Introduction through Review of the Literature with at least four references styled in APA format. This outline is due in Week 3. (Counts as 10% of the concept analysis paper’s grade.) Concept analysis draft: A draft of the entire paper is due in Week 5. The concept analysis draft you submit in Week 5 should be a complete version of the paper. Each part of the final paper should be present, including references styled in proper APA format. The closer that your draft is to the final paper, the more specific feedback your NU601 faculty can provide to you to help improve your final submission (submitted in Week 7). (This draft is worth 10% of the concept analysis paper grade.) Final paper: The final complete paper is due in Week 7 (The final paper is worth 80% of the concept analysis paper grade) Helpful Hints Ensure you review the Week 2 and Week 3 learning materials and readings on concept analysis before you begin writing your concept analysis paper. Refer to the examples in the media activities about what should be included in a concept analysis. Have easy access to your APA Manual. It will help in writing your paper. Use the paper guideline headings to organize your paper. Subheadings might also be helpful, but use them judiciously. Reference all work that is not your own or common knowledge, such as “alcoholism is a serious problem.” For each section of your paper, define what each part means according to the literature, then provide your explanation. You will want to define what a concept analysis is, as well as the meaning of defining attributes, model cases, borderline cases, etc. You may combine your review of the literature pertaining to the three disciplines or present each separately. Do not use broad assumptions without data or evidence to support them. Write in your own words. Do not use colloquial statements or informal language, such as “Let’s take the car for a spin.” If you find a concept analysis of your concept, you may use it very judiciously. Your paper should be your own work. Review this example of a concept analysis paper: West, P., Abbott, P., & Probst, P. (2014). Alarm fatigue: A concept analysis. Online Journal of Nursing Informatics 18(2). It is not perfect, but it should help your understanding of how to write your paper. You may not use basic nursing resources (such as Registered Nurse Journal or American Journal of Nursing), nor basic nursing textbooks. You may use websites that are classified as .org or .edu websites. However, such websites should be used judiciously. Writing Assignment Rubric – 100 Points Criteria Exemplary Exceeds Expectations Advanced Meets Expectations Intermediate Needs Improvement Novice Inadequate Total Points Content of Paper The writer demonstrates a well-articulated understanding of the subject matter in a clear, complex, and informative manner. The paper content and theories are well developed and linked to the paper requirements and practical experience. The paper includes relevant material that fulfills all objectives of the paper. Follows the assignment instructions around expectations for scholarly references. Uses scholarly resources that were not provided in the course materials. All instruction requirements noted. 30 points The writer demonstrates an understanding of the subject matter, and components of the paper are accurately represented with explanations and application of knowledge to include evidence-based practice, ethics, theory, and/or role. Course materials and scholarly resources support required concepts. The paper includes relevant material that fulfills all objectives of the paper. Follows the assignment instructions around expectations for scholarly references. All instruction requirements noted. 26 points The writer demonstrates a moderate understanding of the subject matter as evidenced by components of the paper being summarized with minimal application to evidence-based practice, theory, or role-development. Course content is present but missing depth and or development. Does not follow the assignment instructions around expectations for scholarly references. Only uses scholarly resources that were provided in the course materials. Most instruction requirements are noted. 23 points Absent application to evidence-based practice, theory, or role development. Use of course content is superficial. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. Content of paper is inaccurately portrayed or missing. Does not follow the assignment instructions around expectations for scholarly references. Does not use scholarly resources. Missing some instruction requirements. 20 points 30 Analysis and Synthesis of Paper Content and Meaning Through critical analysis, the submitted paper provides an accurate, clear, concise, and complete presentation of the required content. Information from scholarly resources is synthesized, providing new information or insight related to the context of the assignment by providing both supportive and alternative information or viewpoints. All instruction requirements noted. 30 points Paper is complete, providing evidence of further synthesis of course content via scholarly resources. Information is synthesized to help fulfill paper requirements. The content supports at least one viewpoint. All instruction requirements noted. 26 points Paper lacks clarification or new information. Scholarly reference supports the content without adding any new information or insight. The paper’s content may be confusing or unclear, and the summary may be incomplete. Most instruction requirements are noted. 23 points Submission is primarily a summation of the assignment without further synthesis of course content or analysis of the scenario. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. Missing some instruction requirements. Submits assignment late. 20 points 30 Application of Knowledge The summary of the paper provides information validated via scholarly resources that offer a multidisciplinary approach. The student’s application in practice is accurate and plausible, and additional scholarly resource(s) supporting the application is provided. All questions posed within the assignment are answered in a well-developed manner with citations for validation. All instruction requirements noted. 30 points A summary of the paper’s content, findings, and knowledge gained from the assignment is presented. Student indicates how the information will be used within their professional practice. All instruction requirements noted. 26 points Objective criteria are not clearly used, allowing for a more superficial application of content between the assignment and the broader course content. Student’s indication of how they will apply this new knowledge to their clinical practice is vague. Most instruction requirements are noted. 23 points The application of knowledge is significantly lacking. Student’s indication of how they will apply this new knowledge to their clinical practice is not practical or feasible. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. Application of knowledge is incorrect and/or student fails to explain how the information will be used within their personal practice. Missing several instruction requirements. Submits assignment late. 20 points 30 Organization Well-organized content with a clear and complex purpose statement and content argument. Writing is concise with a logical flow of ideas. 5 points Organized content with an informative purpose statement and supportive content and summary statement. Argument content is developed with minimal issues in content flow. 4 points Poor organization, and flow of ideas distract from content. Narrative is difficult to follow and frequently causes reader to reread work. Purpose statement is noted. 3 points Illogical flow of ideas. Missing significant content. Prose rambles. Purpose statement is unclear or missing. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. No purpose statement. Submits assignment late. 2 points 5 APA, Grammar, and Spelling Correct APA formatting with no errors. The writer correctly identifies reading audience, as demonstrated by appropriate language (avoids jargon and simplifies complex concepts appropriately). Writing is concise, in active voice, and avoids awkward transitions and overuse of conjunctions. There are no spelling, punctuation, or word-usage errors. 5 points Correct and consistent APA formatting of references and cites all references used. No more than two unique APA errors. The writer demonstrates correct usage of formal English language in sentence construction. Variation in sentence structure and word usage promotes readability. There are minimal to no grammar, punctuation, or word-usage errors. 4 points Three to four unique APA formatting errors. The writer occasionally uses awkward sentence construction or overuses/inappropriately uses complex sentence structure. Problems with word usage (evidence of incorrect use of thesaurus) and punctuation persist, often causing some difficulties with grammar. Some words, transitional phrases, and conjunctions are overused. Multiple grammar, punctuation, or word usage errors. 3 points Five or more unique formatting errors or no attempt to format in APA. The writer demonstrates limited understanding of formal written language use; writing is colloquial (conforms to spoken language). The writer struggles with limited vocabulary and has difficulty conveying meaning such that only the broadest, most general messages are presented. Grammar and punctuation are consistently incorrect. Spelling errors are numerous. Submits assignment late. 2 points 5 Total Points 100 Order Now