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NU 629 Week 12 Discussion 1: Well Woman Health Screenings NU 629 Week 12 Discussion 1 Well Woman Health Screenings NU 629 Week 12 Discussion 1: Well Woman Health Screenings The human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) was created to help prevent infection with the most common strains of HPV. There are more than 200 related HPV viruses, with more than 40 being spread through sexual contact (“Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines”, 2021). “Although most HPV infections are transient, persistent infections are a prerequisite for pre-cancerous lesions and ultimately cancer” (Lee & Garland, 2017). Therefore, it is important that those who are 11 or 12 years old get vaccinated (“HPV vaccine recommendations”, 2020). Even those who are 9 years old can start to get vaccinated against HPV (“HPV vaccine recommendations”, 2020). The vaccine works best if given before a person becomes sexually active (“HPV vaccine recommendations”, 2020). Research has shown that HPV vaccines are highly effective in preventing cervical infection with the types of HPV that the vaccine targets (“Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines”, 2021). In the information provided, the mom states that when she turned 18 years old she received her first pap smear. There are different reasons as to why the age for pap smears has been pushed back. One reason is insurance based and another is based on current research. Pap smears should be started at 21 years old and repeated every three years if the results are normal (“What should I know about cervical cancer screening?”, 2021). Based on this information, the patient does not need to get a pap smear done today. The ACS recommends that HPV tests should be done every 5 years from the age of 25 to 65 years old (“ACS’s Updated Cervical Cancer Screening”, 2020). Some HPV infections can go away on their own, that’s why it is recommended to start screening for HPV at age 25 (“ACS’s Updated Cervical Cancer Screening”, 2020). HPV screening should still be done on patients who have gotten the HPV vaccine as the vaccine doesn’t protect against all the strains of HPV. It is important to explain to the patient that even though she isn’t sexually active, this vaccine will work best if she gets it before she does become sexaully active. Also, just because she gets this vaccine doesn’t mean that her mom or healthcare provider believes that she is lying about her sexual activity. By providing some statistics to the patient and her mom, they may feel better about getting the vaccine. There has been a 88% drop in rates of HPV infections among teen girls and a 81% drop among young adult women since 2006 (“HPV vaccine”, 2021). Among those who are vaccinated, there has been a 40% drop of cervical precancers caused (“HPV vaccine”, 2021). If the patient decides to receive the vaccine, it is important that she and her mom understand that routine screening will still need to be done once she is of age. References ACS’s Updated Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines Explained. National Cancer Institute. (2020, September 18). Retrieved November 15, 2021, from https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/cancer-currents-blog/2020/cervical-cancer-screening-hpv-test-guideline. HPV vaccine recommendations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, March 17). Retrieved November 15, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/hpv/hcp/recommendations.html. HPV vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, July 23). Retrieved November 15, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/vaccine-for-hpv.html. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. National Cancer Institute. (2021, May 25). Retrieved November 15, 2021, from https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/infectious-agents/hpv-vaccine-fact-sheet. Lee, L.-Y., & Garland, S. M. (2017, June 12). Human papillomavirus vaccination: The population impact. NCBI. Retrieved November 15, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473416/. What should I know about cervical cancer screening? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, January 12). Retrieved November 15, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/basic_info/screening.htm. Week 12 Discussion 1: Well Woman Health Screenings Value: 100 points Due: Initial Post by Day 3, Reply Post by Day 7 Grading Category: Discussions Initial Post This discussion will allow you to examine several different preventive guidelines related to women’s health. Please read the following three scenarios and choose ONE for your initial post; be sure to address all the questions posed and include at least three scholarly sources within your initial post. Note: As you are choosing a topic, please try to make sure that all topics are chosen at least by one person. You can see this by noting if anyone has posted to the topic within the corresponding threads. Breast Cancer Screening A 39-year-old female presents to your office for her annual well-woman exam. She reports that she has a maternal aunt and a cousin who have had breast cancer, so she does her self-breast exams every month. She would like to start getting mammograms, but her friends all say she doesn’t need to worry about a mammogram until she’s at least close to 50. What are the mammogram recommendations from American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)? What is meant by shared decision-making regarding screening for breast cancer? What are the screening recommendations regarding self-breast exams and clinical breast exams? Based on the scenario provided, what recommendations would you give this patient? What factored into your decision-making? Cervical Cancer Prevention/Screening An 18-year-old is accompanied by her mother for her first visit to the gynecologist. She has never been sexually active. She has no concerns with her menses. Her mom reports that she brought her in “because she is 18 and when I turned 18, I had to get my first Pap smear.” Her mother requests the patient have a Pap smear and be tested for HPV “just in case.” The patient is up to date on all vaccines “mandatory for school” but has never had the HPV vaccine. What are the recommendations on the HPV vaccine? How would you counsel this patient about the HPV vaccine? What are the current ASCCP guidelines for Pap smears and HPV testing? How will you explain the rationale to the patient and the mother? STI Prevention and Screening A 52-year-old female presents to your clinic concerned that she may have contracted a sexually transmitted infection (STI). She states she is recently divorced and admits she never had to practice “safe sex” before and that she has been with several people over the last few months. She has been drinking “way too much” and feels she should just be tested for everything as she has been experimenting. What type of questions would you want to ask to begin to focus your plan? How will her risk factors affect your screening? There are several preventive guidelines related to STI risk and screening. What do the current guidelines indicate she should be screened for? What recommendations should you make regarding “safe sex” practices? Are there any other preventive guidelines you should address with this patient? Reply Posts Review the presentations of two other peers who chose two different topics. Discuss how health disparities in women could affect their care (for example, geographic location, race, finances, literacy, etc.). Use the UpToDate database as one of your required references and a second scholarly reference of your choice; remember you should have at least two references for each peer post. Please refer to the Grading Rubric for details on how this activity will be graded. Well Woman Health Screenings, STI Prevention and screening: To form diagnostic and treatment plans, the healthcare provider should ask the patient about her social history, including housing, environment, occupation, activities, sexuality, drug, and alcohol use. These questions will help identify additional risk factors and health issues of the patient. Since the risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for this patient are frequent partner changes and the practice of unprotected sex, the patient will need additional screening procedures. According to current guidelines, sexually active females over 25 who frequently change partners should be checked for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Additionally, those who practice unsafe sex should be screened for HIV infection (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2021). Therefore, the patient requires nucleic acid amplification tests to check for chlamydia and gonorrhea and blood tests to be screened for HIV. During patient education, it is essential to discuss the advantages of “safe sex.” First, it is worth explaining to the patient the problems associated with the practice of unsafe sex with many partners, such as numerous infections, including HIV that requires lifelong treatment (Garcia & Wray, 2021). Second, the use of condoms significantly reduces the likelihood of infection with all STIs, including HIV infection. Third, the patient should also be advised to use separate sex toys with partners and take medications that prevent HIV infection before sexual activities. Considering the patient’s risk factors, other strategies for preventing STIs should be discussed with her. First, the patient should be vaccinated against hepatitis B and human papillomavirus as these infections are sexually transmitted (Velan & Yadgar, 2017). Second, the patient should be encouraged to reduce the number of sexual partners and, if possible, switch to mutual monogamy with one partner, a reliable way to avoid STIs (CDC, 2021). Third, the client should avoid anal and oral sex and regularly undergo screening tests for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV. Fourth, the patient should learn the symptoms of common STIs for her to seek medical assistance immediately to reduce the likelihood of recurrent infections in the future. References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, July 22). Which STD tests should I get? https://www.cdc.gov/std/prevention/screeningreccs.htm Garcia, M. R., & Wray, A. A. (2021). Sexually transmitted infections. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560808/ Velan, B., & Yadgar, Y. (2017). On the implications of desexualizing vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases: Health policy challenges in a multicultural society. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, 6(1), 30. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13584-017-0153-4 420 words NU 629 Week 12 Discussion 1 Well Woman Health Screenings Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS:NU 629 Week 12 Discussion 1: Well Woman Health Screenings Discussion Question Rubric Note: Scholarly resources are defined as evidence-based practice, peer-reviewed journals; textbook (do not rely solely on your textbook as a reference); and National Standard Guidelines. Review assignment instructions, as this will provide any additional requirements that are not specifically listed on the rubric. Note: The value of each of the criterion on this rubric represents a point range. (example: 17-0 points) Discussion Question Rubric – 100 Points Criteria Exemplary Exceeds Expectations Advanced Meets Expectations Intermediate Needs Improvement Novice Inadequate Total Points Quality of Initial Post Provides clear examples supported by course content and references. Cites three or more references, using at least one new scholarly resource that was not provided in the course materials. All instruction requirements noted. 40 points Components are accurate and thoroughly represented, with explanations and application of knowledge to include evidence-based practice, ethics, theory, and/or role. Synthesizes course content using course materials and scholarly resources to support importantpoints. Meets all requirements within the discussion instructions. Cites two references. 35 points Components are accurate and mostly represented primarily with definitions and summarization. Ideas may be overstated, with minimal contribution to the subject matter. Minimal application to evidence-based practice, theory, or role development. Synthesis of course content is present but missing depth and/or development. Is missing one component/requirement of the discussion instructions. Cites one reference, or references do not clearly support content. Most instruction requirements are noted. 31 points Absent application to evidence-based practice, theory, or role development. Synthesis of course content is superficial. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. No references cited. Missing several instruction requirements. Submits post late. 27 points 40 Peer Response Post Offers both supportive and alternative viewpoints to the discussion, using two or more scholarly references per peer post. Post provides additional value to the conversation. All instruction requirements noted. 40 points Evidence of further synthesis of course content. Provides clarification and new information or insight related to the content of the peer’s post. Response is supported by course content and a minimum of one scholarly reference per each peer post. All instruction requirements noted. 35 points Lacks clarification or new information. Scholarly reference supports the content in the peer post without adding new information or insight. Missing reference from one peer post. Partially followed instructions regarding number of reply posts. Most instruction requirements are noted. 31 points Post is primarily a summation of peer’s post without further synthesis of course content. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. Did not follow instructions regarding number of reply posts. Missing reference from peer posts. Missing several instruction requirements. Submits post late. 27 points 40 Frequency of Distribution Initial post and peer post(s) made on multiple separate days. All instruction requirements noted. 10 points Initial post and peer post(s) made on multiple separate days. 8 points Minimum of two post options (initial and/or peer) made on separate days. 7 points All posts made on same day. Submission demonstrates inadequate preparation. No post submitted. 6 points 10 Organization Well-organized content with a clear and complex purpose statement and content argument. Writing is concise with a logical flow of ideas. 5 points Organized content with an informative purpose statement, supportive content, and summary statement. Argument content is developed with minimal issues in content flow. 4 points Poor organization and flow of ideas distract from content. Narrative is difficult to follow and frequently causes reader to reread work. Purpose statement is noted. 3 points Illogical flow of ideas. Prose rambles. Purpose statement is unclear or missing. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. No purpose statement. Submits assignment late. 2 points 5 APA, Grammar, and Spelling Correct APA formatting with no errors. The writer correctly identifies reading audience, as demonstrated by appropriate language (avoids jargon and simplifies complex concepts appropriately). Writing is concise, in active voice, and avoids awkward transitions and overuse of conjunctions. There are no spelling, punctuation, or word-usage errors. 5 points Correct and consistent APA formatting of references and cites all references used. No more than two unique APA errors. The writer demonstrates correct usage of formal English language in sentence construction. Variation in sentence structure and word usage promotes readability. There are minimal to no grammar, punctuation, or word-usage errors. 4 points Three to four unique APA formatting errors. The writer occasionally uses awkward sentence construction or overuses/inappropriately uses complex sentence structure. Problems with word usage (evidence of incorrect use of thesaurus) and punctuation persist, often causing some difficulties with grammar. Some words, transitional phrases, and conjunctions are overused. Multiple grammar, punctuation, or word usage errors. 3 points Five or more unique formatting errors or no attempt to format in APA. The writer demonstrates limited understanding of formal written language use; writing is colloquial (conforms to spoken language). The writer struggles with limited vocabulary and has difficulty conveying meaning such that only the broadest, most general messages are presented. Grammar and punctuation are consistently incorrect. Spelling errors are numerous. Submits assignment late. 2 points 5 Total Points 100 Order Now