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NU 629 Week 10 Assignment 1: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Population-Specific Final Paper Submission NU 629 Week 10 Assignment 1 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Population-Specific Final Paper Submission NU 629 Week 10 Assignment 1: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Population-Specific Final Paper Submission his essay is about health promotion and disease prevention among the Hispanic population. The United States population accounts for 44 percent of Hispanics (Batalova, Hanna & Levesque, 2021) and it is fast growing, compared to other immigrants’ populations. Therefore, Hispanic historical perspective, health approach, social justice are some of the topics that will be covered. Ethnic vulnerable populations are met with a lot of barriers in health and well-being, including health prevention and disease prevention. Health promotion involves one’s willing to participate to the fullest potential which includes times of wellness and illness (Pender et al., 2015), this would mean choosing to eat the right food, how they can treat their existing illness and maintain good health. The Hispanic population is one of the largest vulnerable groups in the United States (Falkner et al.,2018) and yet all their health issues stem from lack of healthcare accessibility, communication/cultural barriers. The World Health Organization’s definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing, not merely absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 2019). This definition is however interpreted differently as far as people’s consideration of healthy and unhealthy is concerned, there are many attributes related to good health, for instance, mental, physical, emotion, social aspects, all contribute to one’s health. Among the Hispanic population, health issues are a big problem because majority of this population is without health insurance, therefore this makes it had to access health care services. Additionally, Social, and cultural identity together with language are heavily depended on by the Hispanic community. The U.S hosts 58.8 million Hispanics and yet there still exists factors such as language/cultural barriers, lack of health insurance and lack of medical care (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). These barriers affect the health of Hispanics because they limit their willingness and or ability to access health services because they cannot communicate, or they only trust and believe in their cultural practices. Heart disease, cancer, Diabetes, stroke, HIV/AIDS (Falkner et al, 2018) are some of the common diseases for the Hispanic population, standing at a higher risk of getting diseases more than the white population. 40% of American adults could develop type 2 Diabetes, however, a Hispanic adult is at higher risk at 50% of developing the same disease if not even at a younger age. Comparing the two races, the Hispanics are more likely to get sick. Historical perspective To this population, family and culture are highly valued, therefore they try to follow the same tradition when raising their children. They foster unity amongst each other. Prayer and religion are powerful in this community, and they believe prayer to heal. Home remedies, herbs and folk healers play a big role in disease healing, and they are also superstitious when it comes to disease and their root cause. Socioeconomic barriers explain why Hispanic communities tend to depend on their diet which is mainly carbohydrates such as rice, tortillas, spicy foods, and drinks that are high in sugar. These foods are cheap and affordable to them. And the same applies to when they go out to eat, they will order from fast food restaurants that have bulk quantities enough to feed the whole family. It is such unhealthy eating habits that eventually lead to conditions like hypertension, Diabetes, and obesity. Latino adults are 47% more obese than any other race while Latino children are more obese at 25.8% than other races (Despres, 2018). All these factors make it hard to promote any healthy approaches because this population relies on their culture and beliefs whole heartedly, for instance this population would rather see their spiritual healers (Chesnay & Anderson, 2020) when they are sick instead of seeking medical help. Health Promotion Approach Health promotion is a process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health (Lin, 2016). We as health care providers should be emphasizing the importance of healthy behaviors in our patients and the ways diseases can be prevented. However, there are five levels of prevention namely primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary (Kisling, 2021). Latinos are faced with many chronic illnesses and there are many approaches that can be used to educate them on how to prevent these illnesses. For instance, due to the language barrier, educational material should be printed in Spanish (Vince, 2017). Primary prevention would consist of teaching about risk factors for various types of diseases to prevent them from occurring.  Health providers should screen people that are at risk of developing diseases such as Diabetes, hypertension and encourage them to modify their lifestyles such diet intake, exercise, and losing weight. Interventions such as vaccinations, annual physical checkups, healthy eating habits should be emphasized hence changing their lifestyles therefore attaining the primary level health goal. The Hispanic population usually lacks health insurance, they would benefit more from free clinics which offer teaching on how to promote healthy living. Secondary prevention includes introducing healthy behaviors that will help slow the progression of a disease that already exists. For the case of hypertension, this would mean checking blood pressure frequently, changing one’s diet to healthy foods, exercise, and medication. Providers need to emphasize the need to keep this illness in control and trying to avoid progression of the disease. For this population, explanations would need to be given on the side effects of obesity, unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, sodium intake. As for tertiary and quaternary prevention, nothing much can be done to change the situation. The disease has progressed further that it is irreversible. The providers in this case will have to help teach the population on how to live with the disease while still encouraging to still practice healthy habits. The providers will frequently check the patient’s lab work, blood pressure, blood sugar, depending on the disease they carry. Health disparities Hispanics are one of the most disadvantaged groups to experience health disparities because they are a minority population that also happens to be immigrants. Health disparities are variables that contribute to an unequal distribution of resources for a population and this population faces disparities such as language barriers, lack of education, poverty, cultural beliefs, and lack of legal status (Gomez et al., 2019).  They have the lowest socioeconomic status, lower education levels, less access to medical care, and lack of health insurance compared to the other minority group (Shiro & Reeves, 2020). Since language barrier is a problem in this population, navigating the health care system presents as a challenge. This challenge is complicated by the fear of deportation. Since majority of these immigrants are undocumented, they do not want to risk attempting to get health care services for fear that they will be identified as illegal immigrants. Illiteracy is another problem that prevents Hispanics from getting well-paying jobs. The fact that they were not educated, the most jobs they can get are minimum wage jobs that do not pay much to take care of their families, bills, medical expenses. According to Mechanic and Tanner (2007), assistance will be offered to that population whose current situation is not of their own choosing such as the children, the blind, veterans, and the elderly. Looking at the Hispanic population, it is considered a victim because they did not choose to have the socioeconomic inequalities that they face today. This population was faced with poverty, low income, no education, no of which were of their own choice. This population would love to see equality and fairness. Equal job opportunities, better employment, equal cost of living, unfortunately they cannot, because in their own country the wealthy population runs the country. And making matters worse, this population has come to the U.S for a chance at better and fair living only to be met with almost the same problems that took them out of their country. Social Justice Social justice is a concern for the equitable measuring of benefits and burdens in society” (De Chesnay & Anderson, 2020). Using a social justice framework, everyone would be permitted safe, adequate, and affordable housing. This means changing our perspective of illegal immigrants as a human right violation from its stigma of this population. Illegal immigrants were detained on the U.S-Mexican border and this worsened as families were separated; children were taken away from their parents (Felter, Renwick & Cheatham, 2021). Instead of looking at this population as felonies, they should be extended the same care and compassion just like any other citizen. They should be able to access health care and other services without fear of deportation and stigmatization. Health literacy is strongly associated with patients being able to engage in complex disease management and self-care (Hickey et al.,2019). Low literacy plays a significant role in Hispanic population’s health. Literacy and health are interrelated. For a person to follow and understand medical information and discussions, they must be able read, write, and speak a common language. This is a problem for the Hispanic population whose educational level and language barrier are a big concern. One study found that 74% of Spanish-speaking patients have less-than-adequate health literacy as compared to 7% of English-speaking patients (Healthy people, 2020). The nutritional status of this population is concerning. Hispanic families tend to rely on inexpensive foods to feed their families. Because of their low-income status, families are forced to eat unhealthy foods which are high in fat and calories, leading to chronic conditions such as obesity. This has been worsened by the acculturation coupled with advertisement of cheap goods which entice minority groups to consume them, rather than spend money on healthy products. There has been a correlation between the duration of time residing in the U.S and the BMI (Gamboa et al., 2016). Hispanics are the second-highest obesity prevalence in adults, with a rate of 47.8% (American Psychological Association, 2019). This acculturation has blinded the Hispanic population away from healthy nutritious foods to cheap and unhealthy ones.  Implementing a Community-Based Participatory Research health promotion project with the Hispanic population means setting up easy access policies for this population to get health care services. Community-Based Participatory Research refers to the incorporating of research with social action (Pender et al., 2015). Community based participatory care would benefit immigrants in that they would have a provider in the community that would listen and understand their concerns while respecting their cultural beliefs. One con that is noticeable is the same people have experienced a lot of disappointment when it comes to obtaining healthcare services, so having to trust someone would take a while, even if it is within the community. Another con would be language barrier since English is not their first language, makes communication a problem, and sometimes a translator may not be available to assist, which can be frustrating for the immigrants trying to communicate with the provider. Conflict between the immigrant’s cultural beliefs and western medicine/ treatment is another issue. The fact that different cultures have different beliefs, makes it hard for them to accept anything or idea that deviates from their own culture. The diversity in U.S populations keeps growing with immigrants such as the Hispanics. As diversity spreads, health promotion is noted to change depending on a certain race and its cultural beliefs. Hispanics are so planted in their cultural beliefs when it comes to healing, prayer, and the importance of spiritual healers. Low literacy makes it hard for this population to comprehend or follow directions, which in turns leads to poor health promotion and disease prevention. The best way to improve health literacy with the Hispanic population is to use Spanish speaking translators. This will simplify communication between the people and the providers. Another option is to print out health literature in Spanish, with clear explanations of health promotion. As a provider, impacting the Hispanic community is treating them without any biases. Knowing, understanding, and respecting their culture and their beliefs is essential to providing care to this community. Everyone has their own beliefs and culture, so it is up to me as a provider to keep my ethnocentrism in check, to make sure that I do not force my beliefs on others. As a nation, health promotion and disease prevention is highly emphasized. Today, all health care providers are initiating all levels of prevention in their establishments. Doctors are encouraging screening, vaccinations, blood pressure checks, teaching about diet and exercise. The nation call advocate for health promotion and disease prevention by eliminating unhealthy foods from ever being in supply. Having all markets and grocery stores having and selling the same goods to both the rich and the underprivileged would mean that everyone is consuming the same exact product. Affordability would go a long way too for everyone. Making food affordable and available would combat obesity especially in minority populations. These populations resort to unhealthy foods not because they want to, but because they cannot afford the healthy nutritious foods at the store. Setting up locations where people such as the homeless can still get a healthy meal without judgement. The soup kitchens are available all over the states, but they tend to run out of meals and most times the food is not to the healthy standards that are recommended. Therefore, as a nation, there is still work to be done to fight this obesity problem. References American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Ethnicity and health in america series: Obesity in the Latino-Hispanic community. American Psychological Association. Retrieved October 8, 2021, from https://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/ethnicity-health/latino-heritage/obesity. Batalova , J., Hanna, M., & Levesque, christopher. (2021, February 11). Frequently requested statistics on immigrants and immigration in the United States. migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved November 7, 2021, from https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/frequently-requested-statistics-immigrants-and-immigration-united-states-2020. Chesnay, M. D., & Anderson, B. A. (2020). Caring for the vulnerable: Perspectives in nursing theory, practice, and research. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Despres, C. (2018, October 8). Report: With obesity at all-time high, Latinos fare worst. Salud America. Retrieved October 6, 2021, from https://salud-america.org/report-with-obesity-at-all-time-high-latino-kids-and-adults-fare-worst/. Felter, C., Renwick, D., & Cheatham, A. (2021, August 31). The U.S. Immigration Debate. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved October 8, 2021, from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/us-immigration-debate-0. Gamboa, L., Adams, I., Bastin, S., Reina, A., & Gamboa, M. (2016). Hispanics’ knowledge, perceptions, benefits, and barriers of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(9). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2016.06.063   Health literacy. Health Literacy | Healthy People 2020. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2021, from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/social-determinants-health/interventions-resources/health-literacy. Hickey, K. T., Masterson Creber, R. M., Reading, M., Sciacca, R. R., Riga, T. C., Frulla, A. P., & Casida, J. M. (2018, August). Low health literacy: Implications for managing cardiac patients in practice. The Nurse practitioner. Retrieved October 8, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391993/. Lin, C. C. (2016). Health Promotion for Cancer Patients. Cancer Nursing, 39(5), 339–340. https://doi.org/10.1097/ncc.0000000000000416 Mechanic, D., & Tanner, J. (2007). Vulnerable people, groups, and populations: Societal view. Health Affairs, 26(5), 1220–1230. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.26.5.1220 Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L., & Parsons, M. A. (2015). Health Promotion in Nursing Practice (7th ed.). Pearson. Rangel Gómez, M. G., López Jaramillo, A. M., Svarch, A., Tonda, J., Lara, J., Anderson, E. J., & Rosales, C. (2019). Together for health: An initiative to access health services for the Hispanic/Mexican population living in the United States. Frontiers in Public Health, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00273 Shiro, A. G., & Reeves, R. V. (2020, October 1). Latinos often lack access to healthcare and have poor health outcomes. here’s how we can change that. Brookings. Retrieved October 8, 2021, from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2020/09/25/latinos-often-lack-access-to-healthcare-and-have-poor-health-outcomes-heres-how-we-can-change-that/. Vince. (2017, February 10). Health Promotion in the Hispanic population. Soapboxie. Retrieved October 8, 2021, from https://soapboxie.com/social-issues/Health-Promotion-in-the-Hispanic-Population. World Health Organization. (2019, August 1). Constitution of the World Health Organization. World Health Organization. Retrieved October 8, 2021, from https://www.who.int/about/governance/constitution.             Week 10 Assignment 1: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Population-Specific Final Paper Submission Value: 100 points Due: Day 7 Grading Category: Assignments Overview During this assignment, you will be asked to discuss the concepts of health promotion and disease prevention, relating this information to the role of the APRN and applying it to the vulnerable population you selected during Week 1. In Week 6, you submitted a rough draft of your paper and received feedback from faculty, so please make sure you incorporate those comments along with direction you received from SmartThinking, Pearson Writing Center, and the Library. Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Population-Specific Paper This paper was to be developed throughout the first six to nine weeks of the course, with an opportunity to submit a rough draft for feedback during Week 6 and your final submission due this week, in Week 10. The goal of this assignment is twofold: 1) for you to demonstrate an understanding of the key concepts of health promotion and disease prevention as related to the role of the APRN while applying this information to a specific vulnerable population; and 2) for you to have an opportunity to develop your writing and APA formatting skills through faculty feedback and the utilization of various tools here at Regis (that is, Regis Library and staff, SmartThinking, Pearson Writing Center, etc.). The faculty at Regis want you to be successful. Being able to present not only your thoughts but evidence-based practice information in a concise, systematic, and clear manner will be a talent that serves you well. Note: You must submit a SmartThinking report from Week 9 or 10 with your paper. The suggested APA / grammatical corrections must be made along with the faculty-suggested corrections from Week 6. If this is not done, you will automatically receive a zero. Do not wait to submit your work to SmartThinking, as they will be backed up, so submit early (that is, the end of Week 8/first part of Week 9). This entire paper is about your vulnerable population, so each topic listed in the paper needs to be related to your chosen population; from the introduction to the conclusion, it is about your chosen group. The paper is to be five to eight pages in length, not including the title page, attachments, and reference pages. Note: Points will be deducted for going over the max of 8 pages (5 points for each page). The paper will be divided into four sections. Section 1 (Content can be found in Week 1) Introduction WHO’s definition of health Applying the WHO’s definition of health to your vulnerable population. The concept of vulnerable individuals and populations, in general and then related to your specific group. Historical Perspectives of Health Levels of Prevention – overview, brief Primordial Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary The role of nursing, specifically APRNs, in health promotion and disease prevention, and advocacy Section 2 (Content can be found in Week 2 and 3) Health disparities related to your vulnerable group Cultural competency as a provider Defining resilience and applying to the vulnerable, specifically to your group Section 3 (Content can be found in Week 2 through 4. Don’t forget to use the media/website/video links, as they will provide a lot of great information). Focus on your specific vulnerable population group Using Mechanic and Tanner’s 2005 article, is your vulnerable population a sinner or a victim and why? Social justice related to your population Low literacy within your population and how this affects their health Evaluate your vulnerable population related to current Healthy People Initiative guidelines – what specifically relates to your group (Connect D and E) Discuss one primary health concern for your population and include the preventive guideline related to this concern and how you might motivate this group to make behavioral changes. Discuss use of Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) with your vulnerable population – pros and cons. How can community-level plans/interventions influence individual and family health? Discuss what resources are available within your community for your specific population. NU 629 Week 10 Assignment 1 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Population-Specific Final Paper Submission Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS:NU 629 Week 10 Assignment 1: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Population-Specific Final Paper Submission Section 4 The conclusion of your paper should bring all your information together. Discuss an approach for improving health literacy within your population Discuss how, as an APRN, you can impact vulnerable individuals in your community. Conclude with a summary of how we as a nation are doing with health promotion and disease prevention. Note: This assignment is to be submitted in an APA paper format (that is, title page, title, introduction and purpose statement, body of the paper with a conclusion, appropriate citations, and reference page(s) along with attachments) as was your SmartThinking Report. Please make sure that ALL paragraphs are well developed, and have five to six sentences each, with citations for validity. Please refer to the Grading Rubric for details on how the final submission of paper will be graded. Please submit your Final Paper and a NEW SmartThinking Report. Note: Failing to submit a NEW SmartThinking Report will result in a ZERO for this assignment. To Submit Your Assignment: Select the Add Submissions button. Drag or upload your file to the File Picker. Select Save Changes. Writing Assignment Rubric Note: Scholarly resources are defined as evidence-based practice, peer-reviewed journals; textbook (do not rely solely on your textbook as a reference); and National Standard Guidelines. Review assignment instructions, as this will provide any additional requirements that are not specifically listed on the rubric. Writing Assignment Rubric – 100 Points Criteria Exemplary Exceeds Expectations Advanced Meets Expectations Intermediate Needs Improvement Novice Inadequate Total Points Content of Paper The writer demonstrates a well-articulated understanding of the subject matter in a clear, complex, and informative manner. The paper content and theories are well developed and linked to the paper requirements and practical experience. The paper includes relevant material that fulfills all objectives of the paper. Cites five or more references, using at least two new scholarly resources that were not provided in the course materials. All instruction requirements noted. 30 points The writer demonstrates an understanding of the subject matter, and components of the paper are accurately represented with explanations and application of knowledge to include evidence-based practice, ethics, theory, and/or role. Course materials and scholarly resources support required concepts. The paper includes relevant material that fulfills all objectives of the paper. Cites four references. All instruction requirements noted. 26 points The writer demonstrates a moderate understanding of the subject matter as evidenced by components of the paper being summarized with minimal application to evidence-based practice, theory, or role-development. Course content is present but missing depth and or development. Cites three references. Most instruction requirements are noted. 23 points Absent application to evidence-based practice, theory, or role development. Use of course content is superficial. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. Content of paper is inaccurately portrayed or missing. Cites two or fewer references. Missing some instruction requirements. 20 points 30 Analysis and Synthesis of Paper Content and Meaning Through critical analysis, the submitted paper provides an accurate, clear, concise, and complete presentation of the required content. Information from scholarly resources is synthesized, providing new information or insight related to the context of the assignment by providing both supportive and alternative information or viewpoints. All instruction requirements noted. 30 points Paper is complete, providing evidence of further synthesis of course content via scholarly resources. Information is synthesized to help fulfill paper requirements. The content supports at least one viewpoint. All instruction requirements noted. 26 points Paper lacks clarification or new information. Scholarly reference supports the content without adding any new information or insight. The paper’s content may be confusing or unclear, and the summary may be incomplete. Most instruction requirements are noted. 23 points Submission is primarily a summation of the assignment without further synthesis of course content or analysis of the scenario. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. Missing some instruction requirements. Submits assignment late. 20 points 30 Application of Knowledge The summary of the paper provides information validated via scholarly resources that offer a multidisciplinary approach. The student’s application in practice is accurate and plausible, and additional scholarly resource(s) supporting the application is provided. All questions posed within the assignment are answered in a well-developed manner with citations for validation. All instruction requirements noted. 30 points A summary of the paper’s content, findings, and knowledge gained from the assignment is presented. Student indicates how the information will be used within their professional practice. All instruction requirements noted. 26 points Objective criteria are not clearly used, allowing for a more superficial application of content between the assignment and the broader course content. Student’s indication of how they will apply this new knowledge to their clinical practice is vague. Most instruction requirements are noted. 23 points The application of knowledge is significantly lacking. Student’s indication of how they will apply this new knowledge to their clinical practice is not practical or feasible. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. Application of knowledge is incorrect and/or student fails to explain how the information will be used within their personal practice. Missing several instruction requirements. Submits assignment late. 20 points 30 Organization Well-organized content with a clear and complex purpose statement and content argument. Writing is concise with a logical flow of ideas. 5 points Organized content with an informative purpose statement and supportive content and summary statement. Argument content is developed with minimal issues in content flow. 4 points Poor organization, and flow of ideas distract from content. Narrative is difficult to follow and frequently causes reader to reread work. Purpose statement is noted. 3 points Illogical flow of ideas. Missing significant content. Prose rambles. Purpose statement is unclear or missing. Demonstrates incomplete understanding of content and/or inadequate preparation. No purpose statement. Submits assignment late. 2 points 5 APA, Grammar, and Spelling Correct APA formatting with no errors. The writer correctly identifies reading audience, as demonstrated by appropriate language (avoids jargon and simplifies complex concepts appropriately). Writing is concise, in active voice, and avoids awkward transitions and overuse of conjunctions. There are no spelling, punctuation, or word-usage errors 5 points Correct and consistent APA formatting of references and cites all references used. No more than two unique APA errors. The writer demonstrates correct usage of formal English language in sentence construction. Variation in sentence structure and word usage promotes readability. There are minimal to no grammar, punctuation, or word-usage errors. 4 points Three to four unique APA formatting errors. The writer occasionally uses awkward sentence construction or overuses/inappropriately uses complex sentence structure. Problems with word usage (evidence of incorrect use of thesaurus) and punctuation persist, often causing some difficulties with grammar. Some words, transitional phrases, and conjunctions are overused. Multiple grammar, punctuation, or word usage errors. 3 points Five or more unique formatting errors or no attempt to format in APA. The writer demonstrates limited understanding of formal written language use; writing is colloquial (conforms to spoken language). The writer struggles with limited vocabulary and has difficulty conveying meaning such that only the broadest, most general messages are presented. Grammar and punctuation are consistently incorrect. Spelling errors are numerous. Submits assignment late. 2 points 5 Total Points 100 Smart Thinking Report Exemplary, Exceeds Expectations: A new SmartThinking report was submitted with the student’s paper. The recommendations from the SmartThinking Report were applied to the final paper. The student receives all earned points for this assignment. Novice, Inadequate: A new SmartThinking Report was not submitted with the student’s final paper. The student will receive a zero for this assignment. Order Now