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Effectiveness of Ketogenic Diet in Reversing Prediabetes Discussion Effectiveness of Ketogenic Diet in Reversing Prediabetes Discussion Effectiveness of Ketogenic Diet in Reversing Prediabetes Discussion Research proposal (30% of grade) and Abstract (10% of grade): You will compose a study design, which will include an introduction based on primary literature and a novel experiment- or observation-based study that you come up with. We will walk through the steps of writing this scientific study together. You will turn in rough drafts of each component, which I will provide feedback on. The final draft will integrate this feedback. You are also responsible for writing an abstract of your proposal. The outline and requirements for this research proposal are as follows: Course Calendar for Spring 2022 Senior Seminar BSC4931 – SPRING 2022 Fridays U20 (13167) 9:00 to 10:15 am U21 (13180) 10:30 to 11:45 am THIS SYLLABUS IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE due at the start of next class week date lecture HOMEWORK RESEARCH PROPOSAL . 1 1/14 Introduction: syllabus, requirements Amy Cuddy Ted Talk: Presence myIDP pre-survey myIDP start thinking of a research topic that interests you 2 1/21 goals and strategies 5-year plan develop a SMART goal submit a topic and unknowns for your study design 3 1/28 What is a portfolio and why do you need one? submit 3 portfolio pages 4 2/4 Portfolio Review Introduction to study design submit a first draft of your experimental design 5 2/11 Scientific societies Career exploration and skills charts submit two skills charts submit 10 primary sources (annotated bibliography) 6 2/18 writing paragraphs writing an abstract making a checklist/preparing for speaking/writing submit an updated experimental design 7 2/25 Resume / CV spin workshop submit a CV/resume submit introduction 8 3/4 SPRING BREAK 9 3/11 networking professional emails elevator pitches informational interviews submit previous work 10 3/18 Presentations: self-promotion #1 11 3/25 . Presentations: self-promotion #2 submit biological/social rationale 12 4/1 . Personal statements submit a draft personal statement submit conclusion 13 4/8 Write your own recommendation letter submit your reference letter strategy 14 4/15 . Presentations: study design #1 submit summary 15 4/22 . Presentations: study design #2 A ketogenic diet primarily consists of high fats, moderate proteins, and very low carbohydrates. The dietary macronutrients are divided into approximately 55% to 60% fat, 30% to 35% protein, and 5% to 10% carbohydrates. Specifically, in a 2000 kcal per day diet, carbohydrates amount up to 20 to 50 g per day. History and Origin Russel Wilder first used the ketogenic diet to treat epilepsy in 1921. He also coined the term “ketogenic diet.” For almost a decade, the ketogenic diet enjoyed a place in the medical world as a therapeutic diet for pediatric epilepsy and was widely used until its popularity ceased with the introduction of antiepileptic agents. The resurgence of the ketogenic diet as a rapid weight loss formula is a relatively new concept the has shown to be quite effective, at least in the short run. Physiology and Biochemistry Basically, carbohydrates are the primary source of energy production in body tissues. When the body is deprived of carbohydrates due to reducing intake to less than 50g per day, insulin secretion is significantly reduced and the body enters a catabolic state. Glycogen stores deplete, forcing the body to go through certain metabolic changes. Two metabolic processes come into action when there is low carbohydrate availability in body tissues: gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis.[4][5] Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Effectiveness of Ketogenic Diet in Reversing Prediabetes Discussion Gluconeogenesis is the endogenous production of glucose in the body, especially in the liver primarily from lactic acid, glycerol, and Effectiveness of Ketogenic Diet in Reversing Prediabetes Discussion the amino acids alanine and glutamine. When glucose availability drops further, the endogenous production of glucose is not able to keep up with the needs of the body and ketogenesis begins in order to provide an alternate source of energy in the form of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies replace glucose as a primary source of energy. During ketogenesis due to low blood glucose feedback, the stimulus for insulin secretion is also low, which sharply reduces the stimulus for fat and glucose storage. Other hormonal changes may contribute to the increased breakdown of fats that result in fatty acids. Fatty acids are metabolized to acetoacetate which is later converted to beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone. These are the basic ketone bodies that accumulate in the body as a ketogenic diet is sustained. This metabolic state is referred to as “nutritional ketosis.” As long as the body is deprived of carbohydrates, the metabolism remains in the ketotic state. The nutritional ketosis state is considered quite safe, as ketone bodies are produced in small concentrations without any alterations in blood pH. It greatly differs from ketoacidosis, a life-threatening condition where ketone bodies are produced in extremely larger concentrations, altering blood ph to an acidotic state. Ketone bodies synthesized in the body can be easily utilized for energy production by the heart, muscle tissue, and kidneys. Ketone bodies also can cross the blood-brain barrier to provide an alternative source of energy to the brain. RBCs and the liver do not utilize ketones due to lack of mitochondria and enzyme diaphorase respectively. Ketone body production depends on several factors such as resting basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. Ketone bodies produce more adenosine triphosphate in comparison to glucose, sometimes aptly called a “super fuel.” One hundred grams of acetoacetate generates 9400 grams of ATP, and 100 g of beta-hydroxybutyrate yields 10,500 grams of ATP; whereas, 100 grams of glucose produces only 8,700 grams of ATP. This allows the body to maintain efficient fuel production even during a caloric deficit. Ketone bodies also decrease free radical damage and enhance antioxidant capacity. Order Now