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Discussion: Biological Basis and Ethical/Legal Considerations of Psychotherapy Discussion: Biological Basis and Ethical/Legal Considerations of Psychotherapy Discussion: Biological Basis and Ethical/Legal Considerations of Psychotherapy Psychotherapy is an interpersonal treatment based on psychological principles. It is individualized to the patient, seeking to help him or her with a psychiatric disorder, problem, or adverse circumstance. There are different types of psychotherapy with varying methods and levels of supporting evidence. Psychotherapies shown to be effective for individual psychiatric disorders include (Gaines & Goldfried, 2021). •Cognitive and behavioral psychotherapies •Psychodynamic psychotherapy •Interpersonal psychotherapy •Motivational interviewing •Dialectical behavior therapy •Supportive psychotherapy •Family therapy •Psychoeducation Also, Psychotherapy can be useful intervention for the following indications •Treatment of a psychiatric disorder, with the goal of reducing or ameliorating symptoms and improving functioning. •Changing maladaptive thoughts, behaviors, or relationships. •Providing support when a crisis, a difficult period, or a chronic problem impairs functioning. •Enhancing a patient’s capacity to make behavioral changes such as losing weight, quitting smoking, or increasing adherence to medical treatment. •Helping ameliorate a relational problem. •Increasing family cooperation in enhancing treatment (Gaines & Goldfried, 2021). Psychotherapy is an individualized yet comprehensive biological treatment; it does not target one receptor, one or two neurotransmitters, or single modulators; it taps into all the biological regulations underlying complex brain responses. The end result of this type of intervention is a re-elaboration of the whole sense of self and others, through new learning and new experiences that encompass cognitive, emotional, and internal regulation processes. Successful therapies produce comprehensive, lasting, measurable physical changes in the brain. Because Psychotherapy targets almost all systems that regulate the human body, its biological basis is cleared established (Gaines & Goldfried, 2021). Mental health counselors must establish and maintain appropriate professional boundaries and define the relationships as such. Ethical standards and sexual exploitation laws in many states strictly prohibit intimate dating relationships between a therapist and a client because of the power differential. Unethical behavior between a colleague and client must be reported even though it may strain the working relationship (Handelsman et al, 1995) Mental health counselors are not immune from having their own personal difficulties. If a mental health counselor is experiencing emotional problems due to a pending divorce, chemical use relapse or severe depression, there is an ethical obligation to seek consultation. If personal issues affect stability, objectivity, judgment or focus, the counselor may need to take a leave while undergoing therapy (Handelsman et al, 1995). Similarly, mental health therapists must make ethical decisions about whether their personal knowledge or connection to a particular Discussion Biological Basis and Ethical Legal Considerations of Psychotherapy client may require referral to another therapist due to a role conflict. For example, a mental health therapist should not counsel a next-door neighbor. Such dilemmas may be common when practicing in a small town where few therapists are available (Kim, Ahn, Johnson, & Knobe, 2016). Finally, it is important to clinicians who agree to provide services to several persons who have a relationship, such as spouses, significant others, or parents and childre, to take reasonable steps to clarify different roles regarding members such as which of the individuals are clientsor patients and the relationship the clinician will have with each person. This clarification includes the clinician roleand the probable uses of the services provided or the information obtained. Many states have adopted the Ethics Code or similar ethical standards or rules for professional conduct for clinician. For example,  some states require that when services are provided to more than one patient or client during a joint session for example to a family or couple, or parent and child, or group, a clinician shall, at the beginning of the professional relationship, clarify to all parties the limits of confidentiality. In contrast to individual therapy where clinician should simply follow HIPPA rules and regulations (Smith-Bell & Winslade, 1994).   Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Discussion: Biological Basis and Ethical/Legal Considerations of Psychotherapy References Gaines, A. N., & Goldfried, M. R. (2021). Consensus in psychotherapy: Are we there yet? Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. https://doi o          rg.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/cps0000026 Handelsman, M. M., Martinez, A., Geisendorfer, S., Jordan, L., Wagner, L., Daniel, P., & Davis, S. (1995). Does legally mandated consent to psychotherapy ensure ethical appropriateness?: the Colorado experience. Ethics & Behavior, 5(2), 119–129. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1207/s15327019eb0502_1 Kim, N. S., Ahn, W., Johnson, S. G. B., & Knobe, J. (2016). The influence of framing on clinicians’ judgments of the biological basis of behaviors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22(1), 39–47. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/xap0000070 Smith-Bell, M., & Winslade, W. J. (1994). Privacy, confidentiality, and privilege in psychotherapeutic relationships. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64(2), 180. Many studies have found that psychotherapy is as effective as psychopharmacology in terms of influencing changes in behaviors, symptoms of anxiety, and changes in mental state. Changes influenced by psychopharmacology can be explained by the biological basis of treatments. But how does psychotherapy achieve these changes? Does psychotherapy share common neuronal pathways with psychopharmacology? Psychotherapy is used with individuals as well as in groups or families. The idea of discussing confidential information with a patient in front of an audience is probably quite foreign to you. However, in group and family therapy, this is precisely what the psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner does. In your role, learning how to provide this type of therapy within the limits of confidentiality is essential. Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto For this Discussion, you will consider whether psychotherapy also has a biological basis and analyze the ways in which legal and ethical considerations differ in the individual, family, and group therapy settings. To prepare: Review this week’s Learning Resources, reflecting on foundational concepts of psychotherapy, biological and social impacts on psychotherapy, and legal and ethical issues across the modalities (individual, family, and group). Search the Walden Library databases for scholarly, peer-reviewed articles that inform and support your academic perspective on these topics. By Day 3 Post an explanation of whether psychotherapy has a biological basis. Explain how culture, religion, and socioeconomics might influence one’s perspective on the value of psychotherapy treatments. Describe how legal and ethical considerations for group and family therapy differ from those for individual therapy, and explain how these differences might impact your therapeutic approaches for clients in group, individual, and family therapy. Support your rationale with at least three peer-reviewed, evidence-based sources and explain why each of your supporting sources is considered scholarly. Attach the PDFs of your sources. Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses. By Day 6 Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days by providing an additional scholarly resource that supports or challenges their position, along with a brief explanation of the resource. Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit! Name: NRNP_6645_Week1_Discussion_Rubric Grid View List View Excellent Point range: 90–100 Good Point range: 80–89 Fair Point range: 70–79 Poor Point range: 0–69 Main Posting: Response to the discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. Points Range: 40 (40%) – 44 (44%) Thoroughly responds to the discussion question(s). Is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. No less than 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth. Supported by at least 3 current credible sources. Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%) Responds to most of the discussion question(s). Is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. 50% of the post has exceptional depth and breadth. Supported by at least 3 credible references. Points Range: 31 (31%) – 34 (34%) Responds to some of the discussion question(s). One to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed. Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. Post is cited with fewer than 2 credible references. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 30 (30%) Does not respond to the discussion question(s). Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria. Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. Contains only 1 or no credible references. Main Posting: Writing Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%) Written clearly and concisely. Contains no grammatical or spelling errors. Further adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Written concisely. May contain one to two grammatical or spelling errors. Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Written somewhat concisely. May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors. Contains some APA formatting errors. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Not written clearly or concisely. Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors. Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style. Main Posting: Timely and full participation Points Range: 9 (9%) – 10 (10%) Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation. Posts main discussion by due date. Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%) Posts main discussion by due date. Meets requirements for full participation. Points Range: 7 (7%) – 7 (7%) Posts main discussion by due date. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%) Does not meet requirements for full participation. Does not post main discussion by due date. First Response: Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources. Points Range: 9 (9%) – 9 (9%) Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings. Responds to questions posed by faculty. The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives. Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%) Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting. Points Range: 7 (7%) – 7 (7%) Response is on topic, may have some depth. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%) Response may not be on topic, lacks depth. First Response: Writing Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%) Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues. Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed. Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources. Response is written in Standard, Edited English. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Response posed in the discussion may lack effective professional communication. Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. Few or no credible sources are cited. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Responses posted in the discussion lack effective communication. Response to faculty questions are missing. No credible sources are cited. First Response: Timely and full participation Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation. Posts by due date. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Meets requirements for full participation. Posts by due date. Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%) Posts by due date. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%) Does not meet requirements for full participation. Does not post by due date. Second Response: Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources. Points Range: 9 (9%) – 9 (9%) Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings. Responds to questions posed by faculty. The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives. Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%) Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting. Points Range: 7 (7%) – 7 (7%) Response is on topic, may have some depth. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%) Response may not be on topic, lacks depth. Second Response: Writing Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%) Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues. Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed. Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources. Response is written in Standard, Edited English. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Response posed in the discussion may lack effective professional communication. Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. Few or no credible sources are cited. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Responses posted in the discussion lack effective communication. Response to faculty questions are missing. No credible sources are cited. Second Response: Timely and full participation Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation. Posts by due date. Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Meets requirements for full participation. Posts by due date. Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%) Posts by due date. Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%) Does not meet requirements for full participation. Does not post by due date. Total Points: 100 Name: NRNP_6645_Week1_Discussion_Rubric Order Now