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Discussion 4.1: Public Health Planning and Vulnerable Populations Discussion 4 Public Health Planning and Vulnerable Populations Discussion 4.1: Public Health Planning and Vulnerable Populations Discussion Guidelines Initial Post Locate an article in the media at the local, national, or global level; for example, a newspaper, T.V. news clip, or Web-based report, concerning the health needs (communicable or non-communicable disease) of a vulnerable population. An example: One stillbirth occurs every 16 seconds, according to first ever joint UN estimates (Links to an external site.). Utilize the How to Spot Fake News (Links to an external site.) resource to determine the credibility of your source. Post a link to the media piece in your post and provide a brief summary. Discuss the following questions: The characteristics (age, sex, race, ethnicity, geographical location, etc.) of the vulnerable population including prevalence. The impact of the vulnerability on health In a primary health care role, briefly describe a prevention intervention (primary, secondary, or tertiary) to address the health issue for the vulnerable group. Depending on your article, how would you plan your prevention intervention differently if the health need were in a rural community (or urban community)? Response Post(s) Respond to at least two classmates. Submission Post your initial and follow up responses and review full grading criteria on the Discussion 4.1: Public Health Planning and Vulnerable Populations page. Discussion 4.1: Public Health Planning and Vulnerable Populations The article I found is “Pandemic Binge Drinking Could Be Behind Spike in People Who Need Liver Transplants” access can be found here https://www.healthline.com/health-news/pandemic-binge-drinking-may-have-led-to-spike-in-people-who-needed-liver-transplants (Links to an external site.)   The article suggests that due to an increase of alcoholic binge drinking related to the pandemic caused a 50 % spike in liver transplant and waiting list recipients.  The study was conducted by Michigan medicine researchers and they looked at the number of registrations  on a waiting list for liver transplant due to alcoholic hepatitis that occurred before the pandemic. They received the current data during the pandemic from march 2020-january 2021. This showed a 50 percent increase in registrations during these 10 months. The article notes that this is a dramatic increase and the liver community are afraid of the increased death and liver disease this may mean. This article touches base on alcohol induced hepatitis and the increased percentages of need for liver transplants. The population that this is for are those at risk for alcohol consumption related to effects of the pandemic i.e. lockdowns, social distancing. The vulnerability aspect of alcoholism is related to many different factors. These factors are genetic, physiological, psychological and social factors. The extent of the pandemic  and determining the psychological affects may play into the increase of alcoholic induced hepatitis.  Psychological problems like depression and impulsivity are associated with alcohol abuse. This vulnerability is coupled with hepatic toxicity , substance abuse, pancreatitis, Wernicke-korsokoffs syndrome (dementia), thiamine deficiency.  In the primary care setting I would use two different methods in conjunction with each other (American,2018). I would use a secondary prevention technique of screening for risk and education for those at risk and I would have counseling for those who are in need of treatment as a tertiary prevention. This would include Librium treatment, mental health counseling and frequent follow ups.  In the rural setting I would try to advertise in the local news paper or television stations to offer free screenings and information on treatment help. In both the rural and metro areas I would have postings in the local Social services buildings and pamphlets. I would offer them in multiple languages and advertise programs on billboards throughout the area. I would offer health clinics at local stores and pharmacies where I would also advertise these screening and even perform some as applicable (Savage,2020).   American Psychological Association. (2018). Understanding alcohol use disorders and their treatment. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/topics/substance-use-abuse-addiction/alcohol-disorders (Links to an external site.) Discussion 4 Public Health Planning and Vulnerable Populations   Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS:Discussion 4.1: Public Health Planning and Vulnerable Populations Savage, C. L. (2020). Public/community health and nursing practice: Caring for populations. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company. N703 4:1 Public Health Planning and Vulnerable Populations My discussion is from a magazine post as noted below in the reference, about the health of the migrant workforce around the world and in California. Migration is on the rise around the world for various reasons. It is estimated that 250 million people live outside where they were born (Underwood, 2018). The reasons that people migrate from one place to the other include natural disasters, war and violence, politics and failed leadership, and most of all seeking better economic resources for better prospects as in business opportunity and employment for better wage (Underwood, 2018) the host countries on the other hand also attract the migrants to fill vacant positions created by circumstances like aging workforce. The home country stands to benefit economically as the migrants send financial resources home to their families to the tune of Four Hundred and Thirty-Two ($432) billion dollars in 2015 alone (Underwood, 2018). While both the home and host countries benefit from the work situation, the migrants face many challenges. The challenges the migrants encounter is continuous beginning from their home country, while in transit to the host country, and while residing and working in the host countries. It is estimated that migrant workers encounter 15% more likelihood of fatal injury on the job than the native born co-worker (Underwood, 2018). The risk factors predisposing the migrant individuals to fatal injuries include powerlessness resulting to low salaries, inequity in treatment of which they are unable to complain about, fear of loss of job and instant deportation if they speak up, lack of rights and benefit from working like the native born, bad working condition, use of harmful chemicals, exposure to environmental elements like heat exposure (Underwood, 2018). The health implications of the bad working conditions can be very severe. People experience heat exposure leading to faint, shock and death. In California, it is noted that the reproductive health of many of the latino migrants are compromised. While the men suffer sterility, the women suffer preterm deliveries resulting to low weight babies with all its implications if the babies survive. (Underwood, 2018). Among many of the migrants in tropical regions like Central America, Sri Lanka, India and El Salvador, and California in America, it is suggested that chronic kidney disease is a silent epidemic affecting the individuals due to heat stress and lack of health promotion and maintenance and resulting in kidney failure (Underwood, 2018). Other issues identified include lung tissue fibrosis, asthma and other lung conditions as a result of dust inhalation and use of harmful cleaning products. Back pain as a result of repetitive motion and other ergonomic injuries are also reported among the domestic workers. (Underwood, 2018). There seems to be variations among countries as regards the treatment of migrant workers. As noted by Underwood, 2018 most migrant workers especially in the Middle East countries ruled by indentured work program where the worker may not complain of any problems of mistreatment and can be instantly deported if they do. The women are said to be predisposed to abuse doing domestic work and the men are exposed to accidental death doing construction work. There is no clear indication of providing care for the migrant workers. In California however, attention is drawn to the health care needs of the workers and few provisions are being made to care for those who are ill. There is also some intervention in making sure the workers are paid appropriately. Some other developments in California include Heat Stress Standards to provide relief for the workers like water, cool rest periods in a shade within certain number of hours of work. This intervention has prevented death from heat stroke in California compared to the rate of five times in North Carolina with less sun than California (Underwood, 2018). Managing the health care needs of the migrant population can be very challenging. As a primary health care provider, the need to intervene is very important. However, the process can be very challenging as this is an emerging population with serious health needs but without any political representation as natives of the locale. The process must involve the community as well as the business community that employ the migrants. Proper needs assessment must be conducted to understand the scope of the problem. Plan will include population focused assessment, setting specific assessment, problem/health issue assessment and health impact assessment at a minimal  level. These various levels of assessment will help to identify the issue and guide finding solutions and track improvement (Savage, 2020). The problems facing the migrant workers can be tackled using the various intervention methods-primary, secondary, and tertiary as the need is identified. The primary prevention will be the most cost-effective as it will involve providing education about self-care for the population. Education about basic prevention actions will empower them to do more for themselves even with little resources available to them. For example teaching them how to wear masks to prevent inhalation of dusts and other chemicals, how to maintain hydration to prevent dehydration and heat stroke, perhaps we can design an umbrella-hat to prevent direct sunlight, and educate them about how to maximize the benefit of the new heat stress standards. The secondary prevention may be needed, but there is the ethical dilemma of making sure that there is treatment associated with any negative findings if screening is conducted to measure kidney function for example. There must be a follow up treatment to manage the condition identified through screening. This can be very costly. There is the need to form alliance with the community and the employers to determine what can be done. Providing tertiary intervention is really a big challenge as it involves intervention to “prevent premature mortality and adverse health consequences.”(Savage, 2020, p. 51). This level of intervention involves huge amounts of health care cost and somebody has to be the sponsor. The moral and ethical debate continues. It is a debate that must be done as the migrant workers are here to stay. References Savage, C. L. (2020). Public/community health and nursing practice caring for populations (2nd ed.). F. A. Davis Company. Underwood, E. (2018, July 18). Unhealthy work: Why migrants are especially vulnerable to injury and death on the job. Knowable Magazine. Retrieved November 2, 2021, from https://www.knowablemagazine.org Migrant workers have been a vital part of the worlds economy from the barter system to the creation of money. Migrant workers who are undocumented or do not contribute to the health care system may be a burden. 3.9 million unauthorized immigrants cost approximately 4.8 billion in health care a year(Forbes,2018). It has become the burden of the legal immigrants and the citizens to pay these bills. Migration is a vital and important part of health and economic advancement but in specific scenarios it can become a burden to the health care system and the economy. In healthcare there are many ways people who obtained their education in other countries can come and work in the United States. Specifically we have an agency who hires people from the Philippines thy completed their nursing training. This allows to help shortages and offers the new nurses experience in settings they may not have in the Philippines. Immigration and healthcare is a very arduous problem and decades have been spent finding a solution. Small advances are being made but a larger solution is still needed. Thank you for your post it was very interesting. Forbes. (2018). How American Citizens Finance $18.5 Billion In Health Care For Unauthorized Immigrants. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.forbes.com/sites/theapothecary/2018/02/26/how-american-citizens-finance-health-care-for-undocumented-immigrants/amp/ Discussion 4.1: Public Health Planning and Vulnerable Populations There are a lot of vulnerable populations with health care needs, including the elderly, those with disabilities, racial minorities, children, people with low socioeconomic status, etc. (Mancilla et al., 2020). The discussion post will focus on the health needs of immigrants with limited English proficiency, such as the old, females and single/divorced. An article by Jang (2016) stated that there is a risk of physical and mental health concerns (e.g., depression and self-rating of health) related to people, especially the elderly population with limited English proficiency (Derr, 2015). It remains imperative that effective communication between patients and providers has a significant impact on the care process. Misunderstanding of information perceived by the patient may lead to treatment non-adherence, which may worsen their condition. For example, in Ali and Watson’s (2018) article, it was described that immigrants with a language barrier are more at risk of getting a lower quality of care by their care team or providers. As healthcare professionals, part of our goals in caring for this population should be to fully participate/ understand their care treatment regardless of their English proficiency. Therefore, it is significant to create an atmosphere where the patient/ family members feel well informed and involved in the care process. With that said, multiple means can be implemented to assist the patient with their health concerns. For example, the use of qualified translators, such as video remote interpreting services (VRI), have been proven to be effective in caring for the immigrant population with limited English proficiency. In addition, the VRI can be utilized to discourse consent for or refusal of treatment, acquire patient medical history, billing, diagnosis, discharge instructions, and other concerns the patient might have pertaining to their health. Reference Ali, P. A., & Watson, R. (2018). Language barriers and their impact on the provision of care to patients with limited English proficiency: Nurses’ perspectives. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(5–6), e1152–e1160. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14204 Derr, A. S. (2015, December 15). Psychiatry Online. Psychiatric Services. Retrieved November 2, 2021, from https://ps.psychiatryonline.org/action/cookieAbsent Jang, Y., Yoon, H., Park, N. S., & Chiriboga, D. A. (2016). Health Vulnerability of Immigrants with Limited English Proficiency: A Study of Older Korean Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(7), 1498–1502. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.14199 Mancilla, V. J., Peeri, N. C., Silzer, T., Basha, R., Felini, M., Jones, H. P., … & Vishwanatha, J. K. (2020). Understanding the interplay between health disparities and epigenomics. Frontiers in Genetics, 11.   Order Now