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Contemporary Nation State Discussion Contemporary Nation State Discussion Contemporary Nation State Discussion Description Reflect on our contemporary nation state and discuss how it is different from one of the other political systems we have been reading about- chiefdoms, bands (foraging groups), or early agricultural states. Does this political system give us more or less freedom? Is it based on distinctions of self and other- how? Is it right that we exclude and discriminate against people who are not considered part of our nation? How do we reconcile the fact that our nation values equality but practices inequality? Do you feel that the concept of the nation state will inevitably lead to conflict and war? Why or why not. The origins and early history of nation states are disputed. A major theoretical question is: “Which came first, the nation or the nation state?” Scholars such as Steven Weber, David Woodward, Michel Foucault and Jeremy Black[10][11][12][13] have advanced the hypothesis that the nation state did not arise out of political ingenuity or an unknown undetermined source, nor was it a political Contemporary Nation State Discussion invention; but is an inadvertent byproduct of 15th-century intellectual discoveries in political economy, capitalism, mercantilism, political geography, and geography[14][15] combined with cartography[16][17] and advances in map-making technologies.[18][19] It was with these intellectual discoveries and technological advances that the nation state arose. For others, the nation existed first, then nationalist movements arose for sovereignty, and the nation state was created to meet that demand. Some “modernization theories” of nationalism see it as a product of government policies to unify and modernize an already existing state. Most theories see the nation state as a 19th-century European phenomenon, facilitated by developments such as state-mandated education, mass literacy and mass media. However, historians[who?] also note the early emergence of a relatively unified state and identity in Portugal and the Dutch Republic.[20] In France, Eric Hobsbawm argues, the French state preceded the formation of the French people. Hobsbawm considers that the state made the French nation, not French nationalism, which emerged at the end of the 19th century, the time of the Dreyfus Affair. At the time of the 1789 French Revolution, only half of the French people spoke some French, and 12–13% spoke the version of it that was to be found in literature and in educational facilities, according to Hobsbawm.[21] Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Contemporary Nation State Discussion During the Italian unification, the number of people speaking the Italian language was even lower. The French state promoted the replacement of various regional dialects and languages by a centralised French language, and so did, and still does, Italy. The introduction of conscription and the Third Republic’s 1880s laws on public instruction facilitated the creation of a national identity under this theory.[citation needed] The Revolutions of 1848 were democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states. Some nation states, such as Germany and Italy, came into existence at least partly as a result of political campaigns by nationalists, during the 19th century. In both cases, the territory was previously divided among other states, some of them very small. The sense of common identity was at first a cultural movement, such as in the Völkisch movement in German-speaking states, which rapidly acquired a political significance. In these cases, the nationalist sentiment and the nationalist movement clearly precede the unification of the German and Italian nation states Order Now