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Assignment: Sleep Deprivation Article Summary Assignment: Sleep Deprivation Article Summary Assignment: Sleep Deprivation Article Summary Description A summary on the article attached. No more than 4-5 pages. Identify the specific method or analysis used in the article. In this summary, there should be a thorough examination of the purpose of the study, research question(s), methodology, results, and conclusion. Provide a critical evaluation of the paper. Discuss if it is quantitative or qualitative research. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 2017 VOL. 22, NO. 3, 337–348 https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2016.1181557 OPEN ACCESS The young and the restless: Socializing trumps sleep, fear of missing out, and technological distractions in first-year college students Sue K. Adams, Desireé N. Williford, Annemarie Vaccaro, Tiffani S. Kisler, Alyssa Francis and Barbara Newman Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA ABSTRACT College students are a sleep-deprived population, with first-year students facing a number of specific challenges to sleep. As students transition into and through the first year of college, sleep may be sacrificed for a variety of reasons. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen first-year students, exploring factors that impacted sleep during the first semester of college. Study participants identified three unique but related themes that impacted their sleep: socializing trumps sleep; fear of missing out; and social/ technological distractions. Implications are provided for balancing social, academic and biological demands in emerging adulthood. ARTICLE HISTORY Received 21 March 2016 Accepted 19 April 2016 KEYWORDS Sleep; college; transition; technology; social; fear of missing out College students, specifically first-year students, are extremely sleep deprived, with approximately 25% of students reporting less than six hours of sleep per night (Lund, Reider, Whiting, & Prichard, 2010). This statistic is alarming given that the average 18-year-old requires approximately 8.5 h of sleep for optimal functioning (National Sleep Foundation, 2013). Sleep deprivation is a troubling phenomenon because it negatively impacts the individual across all domains of functioning, including academic, social, physical and emotional functioning. For instance, sleep deprivation can lead to negative outcomes such as impaired memory, decreased mood, decreased stress management, and impaired immune response (Curcio, Ferrara, & De Gennaro, 2006; Hill, 1994; Wolfson & Carskadon, 1998). While there is a growing body of literature about sleep during adolescence (e.g. Sadeh, Dahl, Shahar, & Rosenblat-Stein, 2009), there is limited research about sleep for first-year students during the initial semester at college – a time when sleep settings/environments (e.g. home versus residence hall) and patterns might change drastically. Moreover, almost no research has relied on qualitative data (e.g. student narratives) to highlight the ways students themselves describe the influences on their sleep, or lack thereof. This study begins to fill that gap. Literature review The first year of college is a time filled with experimentation of how to handle newfound autonomy over the self (Arnett, 2000). Most high-schoolers have some degree of parental oversight when it comes to sleep patterns and making sure they are going to bed at a reasonable time. After beginning college, however, most students must adjust to their newfound autonomy regarding their schedules, as well CONTACT Sue K. Adams suekadams@uri.edu © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 338 S. K. Adams et al. as balancing increasing social and academic demands in an environment with less externally imposed structure. There are a number of factors that may impact a student’s ability to get enough sleep during the first year of college, including a fear of missing out (FoMO), environmental stimuli, and technology. Fear of missing out Several psychosocial factors contribute to sleep problems in adolescents, including the desire to stay up late to engage in social activities, self-determined bed times, and easy access to a vast range of stimulating activities (Dahl & Lewin, 2002). Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Assignment: Sleep Deprivation Article Summary The latter may be particularly problematic in college residence halls, where individuals are constantly surrounded by others, and therefore are more likely to engage in social activities that may impact sleep schedules (Dahl & Lewin, 2002). One emerging construct that impacts the ability to set Assignment Sleep Deprivation Article Summary boundaries around sleep is termed the ‘FoMO’. FoMO is defined as a pervasive apprehension that a more exciting or interesting event is taking place elsewhere (Przybylski, Murayama, DeHaan, & Gladwell, 2013). Preliminary research exploring the prevalence of FoMO found nearly three-quarters of young adults reported they experienced the phenomenon (Alt, 2015). Przybylski et al. (2013) found FoMO is associated with greater Facebook use, and those high in FoMO were more likely to use Facebook immediately after waking in the morning and before falling asleep at night, which may impact the time it takes to fall asleep along with the quality of sleep. The generation of students currently enrolled in college is oftentimes characterized as possessing highly developed skills in information technology and multitasking (Alt, 2015). Such skills enable individuals to remain socially connected while engaged in independent work. Previous research has described this generation as focused on social interaction and connectedness with others through mobile phones, chat-rooms and email while simultaneously engaged in other tasks such as video games, listening to music and watching television (McMahon & Pospisil, 2005). Moreover, Pempek, Yermolayeva, and Calvert (2009) found 50% of their undergraduate sample used Facebook to communicate with friends not on campus (i.e. old friends and friends at other schools). Aside from social media use, Dahl and colleagues (2002) suggest social stresses; including fear, anxiety and emotional arousal interfere with the ability to fall asleep during adolescence. During adolescence factors associated with FoMO, such as rumination, stress and worry are likely to affect the time it takes to fall asleep as cognitive components related to the ability to fall asleep are changing (Dahl & Lewin, 2002). According to Chickering and Reisser (1993) emerging adults engage in seven developmental tasks during the collegiate years. While attempting to develop mature interpersonal relationships, emerging adults must be able to create equitable relationships based upon honesty, respect and equity. Chickering and Reisser (1993, p. 48) also argue ‘development means more in-depth sharing and less clinging, more acceptance of flaws and appreciation of assets, more selectivity in choosing nurturing relationships, and more long-lasting relationships that endure crises, distance, and separation’. As emerging adults continue to develop mature interpersonal relationships, they would likely experience less fear that they are missing important social events during times of separation. Environmental stimuli Environmental stimuli can also impact sleep throughout the first semester as students adjust to a new living environment. For example, in their sample of 1125 college students living in residence halls, Lund et al. (2010) found excess noise accounted for 33% of the responses when participants were asked ‘How often have you had trouble sleeping because of other reason(s)?’ Following closely behind, stress accounted for 35% of the responses. Sharing a bedroom with others (7%) and talking with friends (6%) were also commonly cited as reasons for disrupted sleep. This finding is supported by research suggesting constant contact with peers often interferes with going to bed at a healthy bed time (Dahl & Lewin, 2002). Additionally, when asked ‘if your sleep is at all compromised, to what one factor do you most strongly attribute this?’ 17% of respondents explained light or noise most strongly influenced sleep; 8% of respondents suggested light or noise most interfered with initiating International Journal of Adolescence and Youth  339 sleep. Similarly, Gellis and colleagues (2014) found students with higher levels of insomnia were more likely to engage in arousing behaviours near bedtime, report uncomfortable sleeping arrangements (including a noisy room) and engage in an improper sleep schedule – likely a result of residence hall living, social priorities, and newfound freedom. Order Now