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Assignment: Online Self Esteem and Social Correlations Literature Review Assignment: Online Self Esteem and Social Correlations Literature Review Assignment: Online Self Esteem and Social Correlations Literature Review Description This week, you will finalize the Literature Review section of your proposal. While developing Part 5, use the following guidelines: Review the topic using articles pulled in prior weeks.  Start with a broad overview of the topic, and narrow it down to the purpose of your research and your specific research question. State your hypothesis(es) (your prediction of what your research will reveal based on the literature review). my ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the relationships between family functioning, social support, academic performance and self-esteem among young adults. A single survey was carried out to gather data from the subjects. The sample consisted of 378 students, aged between 18 to 26 years old. The samples were drawn through a convenience and stratified sampling from Universiti Tunkti Abdul Rahman and Sunway University College, Malaysia. Bivariate correlation and linear regression were used to analyse the relationships between the variables. T-test was also employed to in order to find out the differences between genders on the academic performance and self-esteem. The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between family functioning and social support on students’ selfesteem. Nevertheless, no correlation was found between family functioning and social support on the students’ academic performance. On the other hand, females outperformed their male counterparts in their academic performance, but showed no significant differences in their self-esteem. Keywords: Academic performance, family functioning, self-esteem, social support ABBREVIATIONS B: Unstandardized Coefficients B: Standardized Coefficients F: F test N: Sample size p: Probability r: Coefficient Correlation SE B: Standard Error of Estimate t: t test R: Coefficient Regression R^: Adjusted R Square d: Level of gender differences INTRODUCTION In recent years, the quality of family functioning has been an interesting study of the society. During the developing years of an individual, family plays a significant role in children’s life. Children’s level of self-esteem and academic performance are mostly influenced by their family (Mclnerney, Dowson, Yeung and Nelson, 1998). In some ways. Received: 22 May 2008 Accepted: 18 August 2008 family is an important source of social support for them, and likewise, the social support which consists of friends and classmates might also play a role in developing their self-esteem and the level of academic performance. Adolescents who experience “unpleasant family interactions and family stress” grow up to be incapable of expressing their thoughts effectively and more likely to express the dissatisfaction of their family interactions when associating with their peers. In the long run, these children will grow into adolescents who have negative views of themselves (Shagle and Barber, 1995). Similarly, this will be reflected in their level of perceived social support from their family, friends and significant others. Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Assignment: Online Self Esteem and Social Correlations Literature Review Cumsille and Epstein (1994) mentioned in their study that the perceived social support from friends could serve as defence towards the progress of depression, when support was failed to be provided by the child’s family. Before further discussion, the definition of variables and research evidences should be reviewed. Tam Cai Lian DEnNITION RESEARCH EVIDENCES Eamily Eunctioning Assignment Online Self Esteem and Social Correlations Literature Review Eamily Eunctioning and Academic Performance In this context, a good family functioning refers to family members who are willing to solve problems together, showing concern towards each other, and there are fewer quarrels (Blake and Slate, 1993). According to Berg-Cross, Kidd and Carr (1990), cohesive families are characterized by a family atmosphere of support and understanding. Shek (2002), on the other hand, defines family ñtnctioning as the “quality of family life at the systemic and dyadic levels and concerns Wellness, competence, strengths, and weaknesses of a family”. According to Scott (2004), the quality of family life, which is also a family functioning, is causally and indirectly related to academic performance. Problems such as academic failure and underachievement have been linked to family functioning (family life-family conflict, communication and organization). Scott (2004) indicated in his study that children who came from “intact” homes were more advantaged in their academic achievement. In his study, parent-youth communication in early adolescence was a key factor in leading to good academic achievement. In addition, a study by Shek (2002) found that family functioning had a strong connection with adolescents’ adjustment (academic performance, satisfaction with academic performance and conduct). Social Support House (1981) defined social support as the now of emotional concern, instrumental aid, and/or appraisal between people. According to Maher, Mora and Leventhal (2006), perceived support is the subjective sense that people are available and willing to satisfy a range of roles which include emotional, friendship, and tangible needs. In the study by Malecki and Demaray (2006), social support was conceptualized as the support which students perceived as being available to them from their parents, teachers, classmates, close friends, and their schools. Academic Performance Academic achievement, which is similar to academic performance, has been defined broadly. Academic achievement is the inclusion of outcomes which are’ related empirically or conceptually to school achievement. These include grades, academic motivation, and behaviour problems (Mandara, 2006). On the other hand, Malecki and Demaray (2006) conceptualized academic achievement simply as the grade point average (GPA) in schools. Self-Esteem Freshbach and Weiner (1991) define self-esteem as the positive or negative value a person places on his or her own attribute. Self-esteem also means how a person feels about himself or herself. According to Cashwell (1995), an individual with high self-esteem considers himself/ herself a worthy person, while an individual with low selfesteem is often seen as one who engages in selfrejection, self-dissatisfaction, and self-contempt. Self-esteem is crucial in maintaining or restoring an individual’s physical and mental health. 286 A study carried out on the African-American families revealed higher ovei;all GPAs, Math and Science results, and verbal performances when parents were actively involved in their children academic pursue (Mandara, 2006). In addition, another study of Duchesne and Larose (2007) found that adolescents’ attachment to both parents was positively correlated with their academic motivation. They attained similar results in their study which showed that increased contacts with parents, in a positive nature, undoubtedly increased the students’ achievement. However, the study of Walker and Satterwhite (2002), on the academic performances among African American and Caucasian college students, suggested that the family has important but less effect at the college level. When comparing the White and African American families, in terms of adolescents’ academic performance and family functioning, it was revealed that the family relationships between the two ethnic backgrounds did not significantly differ, but the Whites were indicated to have better academic performance. As a whole, the evidences gathered from a number of research revealed that family functioning had a strong connection with adolescents’ academic achievement. However, there were also studies which suggested that family functioning had important but less effect at the college level. Social Support and Academic Performance Previous research discovered weak evidence between social support and academic performance. Malecki and Elliott (1999) investigated the PertanikaJ. Soc. Sei. & Hum. Vol. 16 (2) 2008 Family Functioning, Perceived Social Support, Academic Performance and Self-Esteem relationship between social support and grade point average (GPA) in a sample of seventh thorough 12* graders. They found a small but significant relationship between the students’ perceived support and their overall GPA. Additionally, they also found a significant relationship between teachers’ support and GPA. Similarly, Rosenfeld, Richman, and Bowen (2000) found that students with high social support from parents, teachers, and friends had better grades as compared with those without such support. To ftzrther sttpport this point, Malecki and Demaray (2006) reported that regardless of the students’ socioeconomic status, higher social support in terms of parental support and classmate support were related to a higher GPA. In the same vein, Levitt, Guacci-Franco and Levitt (1994) also fottnd a significant relationship between social support and standardized test scores in a sample of multi-ethnic students; however, no relationship was found between social support and GPA. A study conducted by Mclnerney, Dowson, Yeung and Nelson (1998) indicated that parent, teacher and peer support had a significant positive impact on the students’ interest in schoolwork and their GPA. Additionally, a study conducted by Degarmo and Martinez (2006) revealed that combined sources of social support were important in contributing to the academic wellbeing of Latino youths. On the other end of the continent, there are stttdies which have yielded a negative relationship between peer social support and academic achievements. This means the lower tbe social support that adolescent perceives form their peers, the higher their achievement outcomes will be. This could be due to the fact adolescents felt challenged when they did not receive social support, and therefore used this factor as their motivation to achieve academically (Cauce, Feiner and Primavera, 1882; Gottereil, 1992). In sum, most sttidies found that students who received high social support from parents, teachers, and friends had better grades compared to those without such support. On the other hand, only few studies have shown the negative relationships between the two variables. Family Functioning and Self-Esteem Family functioning was found to be linked with adolescents’ self-esteem in a Chinese sample (Shek, 2002). The participants in the current consisted of 1519 secondary school students, ranging in the age from 11 to 18 years old. The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument and Self-Esteem Scale were used to gather the necessary data. The findings of the current research indicated that family functioning was indeed associated with students’ self-esteem. According to Mandara and Murray (2000), family functioning has shown to have a positive effect on self-esteem. Both researchers conducted a study on 116 fifteen-yearold African Axnericans. The participants provided information on their perceptions of self-esteem and family functioning using the MDSEI (MultiDimensional Self-Esteem Inventory) and FES (Family Environment Scale). Indeed, the results revealed tbat the optimal family functioning was a strong predictor. This implied that the better the family functioning, the higher the self-esteem of the African American adolescents. Shek (1998) also found that discrepancies in the adolescent’s perceptions of family functioning influenced the psychological well-being (self-esteem, feelings of hopelessness, life satisfaction, purpose in life and general psychiatric morbidity) over time. Brody and Flor (1997) found similar results where self-esteem was linked with family routines and the quality of mother-child relationship. I n d i v i d u a l s who viewed t h e i r p a r e n t s ‘ communication as supportive and open would most probably have higher self-esteem than those who perceived their parents’ communication patterns as controlling and unstipportive (Blake and Slate, 1993). These results are consistent with the findings of Rochelle’s (2001) study, which found that there was a significant positive correlation between the perceived family support and self-esteem. However, a study in which the sample was a group of Chinese adolescence from the Mainland China, found that parental support was not a distinct predictor of the adolescents’ self-esteem (Bush, Peterson, Cobas and Supple, 2002). In sum, various research evidences revealed that family functioning was associated with selfesteem, whereby the optimal family functioning was a strong predictor. Limited research implied that family functioning was not a significant predictor for higher self-esteem. Social Support and Self-Esteem It is suggested that individuals who perceive the presence of supportive family and peers are more likely to feel greater self-esteem (Pierce et al., 2000, PertanikaJ. Soc. Sei. & Hum. Vol. 16 (2) 2008 287 Tam Cai Lian as cited in Measelle, Stice and Springer, 2006). Their research revealed that more significant positive effects of support were received from their teachers and friends on adolescents’ self-esteem over time as compared to the support from either the mother or father. Mclnerney, Dowson, Yeung and Nelson (1998) found similar findings that parent, teacher and peer support had significantly positive impacts on students’ self-esteem, in which the teachers played the strongest influential role on the self-esteem of the high-school sub-sample. Additionally, in the study by Shute, Blasio and Williamson (2002), self-esteeip was found to have a significantly positive correlation with the overall social support satisfaction and the size of the support network. In sutñ, previous research evidences revealed that social support had a positive relationship with adolescents’ self-esteem. This finding also suggests that the higher the level of perceived social support, the better the level of self-esteem will be. Gender Differences in Academic Performance Prior to 1970s, interest in gender differences in academic performance revolved around the possibility that girls were outperforming boys in reading during the elementary school years (Brophy, 1985, as cited in Wilkinson and Marrett, 1988). Girls performed better in reading and other related subjects throughout elementary school and into the adolescent years (Dwyer and Johnson, 1997; Entwisle, 1997). By the 1970s, attention was shifted to the possibility that boys were outperforming girls in Maths and Science, particularly during adolescence. However, boys have rarely been found to outperform girls in terms of grades in Mathematics and Science, even during adolescence; in fact, girls have often been found to outperform boys (Dwyer and Johnson, 1997; Kimball, 1989). Gender Differences in Self-Esteem As for self-esteem, many researchers found that males had higher levels of self-esteem as compared to females (Allgood-Merten and Stockard, 1991; Feather, 1991; Fertman and Chubb, 1992). Quatman and Watson (2001) found similar results, which indicated a higher self-esteem for the males as compared to females. Whereas, Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) determined that the studies they reviewed were 288 too disparate to come to a conclusion about the presence or absence of gender differences. Feingold (1994) reviewed gender differences in multiple aspects of personality and found a small difference favouring males (d=.10), and this finding was compared to another analysis which also found a small difference favouring males (d=.12) (Hall, 1984). Gender differences in selfesteem conducted prior to the advent of metaanalysis (Maccoby and Jacklin, 1974; Wylie, 1979) suggested that there was no consistent gender difference, yet they differed in their rationale. However, there were researchers who found that there were no gender differences related to selfesteem (Greene and Wheatley, 1992; Simpson, Gangestad and Lerma, 1990). General Issue Since academic performance and the development of self-esteem in a person’s life are important for the individual’s future and personal growth, it is therefore necessary to investigate the relationship between these variables. Order Now