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Assignment: Module 7 Catechol Hallucinogens Questions Assignment: Module 7 Catechol Hallucinogens Questions Assignment: Module 7 Catechol Hallucinogens Questions Description Name three drugs that in 1931 Lewin referred to as being in a class of phantastica. Barstow Community College have important differences in chemical structures, their known pharmacological properties, how much loss of awareness occurs and how dangerous they are. What are the two major classes’ phantastica? Describe Indole Hallucinogens. Who was Frank Olson? Define Synesthesia. Define Psilocybin. What is DMT? List at least 5 Catechol Hallucinogens and tell what each one might do if ingested one way or another. Who would use MDMA & why? Anticholinergic Hallucinogens include……? What is PCP & Angel Dust? What are the major differences between C. sativa and C. indica? What is THC? What year did the Marijuana Tax Act come into effect? Who was Harry Anslinger and how did his writings come to be called a “pyramid of prejudice”? What were the general conclusions of the 1944 LaGuardia Commission? What is a cannabinoid? How is the action of THC in the brain terminated after about 30,minutes when the half life of metabolism is much longer than that? What are the two most consistent physiological effects of smoking marijuana? Is there evidence that shows marijuana interferes with reproduction? The term “hallucinogen” has come to describe LSD and related compounds based on the supposition that these drugs elicit hallucinations, but it has been argued that, at the doses commonly taken recreationally, frank hallucinations are produced only rarely Assignment Module 7 Catechol Hallucinogens Questions [14]. Nevertheless, other designations for this class of drugs (for example, psychedelics, psychotomimetics, entheogens, etc.) have not necessarily caught on, and so we will use the term hallucinogen to refer to these compounds, despite the controversy surrounding the appropriateness of this appellation. As a drug category, hallucinogens are typically accepted to encompass an enormous range of pharmacological substances, with mechanisms of action ranging from cannabinoid agonism (i.e., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism (i.e., phencyclidine), muscarinic receptor antagonism (i.e., scopolamine), κ opioid agonism (i.e., salvinorin A), mixed action monoamine release (i.e., 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]), and more. Thus, within the confines of this review, we will use the term hallucinogen to denote compounds with pharmacological effects similar to three prototypical drugs: 3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenethylamine (mescaline, Figure 1, A.), N,N-dimethyl-4-phosphoryloxytryptamine (psilocybin, Figure 1, B.) and LSD (Figure 1, C.). All of these drugs function as agonists at 5-HT2A receptors, and much work has culminated in the widespread acceptance that this particular receptor initiates the molecular mechanisms responsible for the unique effects of these compounds. Much of that work will be reviewed herein. Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Assignment: Module 7 Catechol Hallucinogens Questions The aim of this review is to mark the sea change which seems to be occurring within the field of hallucinogen research. Until very recently, comparatively few scientists were studying these particular compounds, perhaps due to their unfortunate association with somewhat less than rigorous research techniques. In Nichols’ recent review [14], for example, prominent clinicians are quoted as stating that the effects of hallucinogens transcend pharmacology, are unpredictable, and border on the mystical. Nevertheless, the state of hallucinogen research is now approaching something of a high water mark. Selective antagonists are available for relevant serotonergic receptors, the majority of which have now been cloned, allowing for reasonably thorough pharmacological investigation. Animal models sensitive to hallucinogen-like effects have been established and exploited to yield a wealth of largely concordant data. Along similar lines, sophisticated genetic techniques have enabled the development of mutant mice, which have proven useful in the study of hallucinogens. Finally, the capacity to study post-receptor signaling events has lead to the proposal of a plausible mechanism of action for these compounds. The tools currently available to study the hallucinogens are thus more plentiful and scientifically advanced than were those accessible to earlier researchers studying the opioids, benzodiazepines, cholinergics, or other centrally active compounds. Those interested in hallucinogen research should thus be encouraged by all of these recent developments, and it is hoped that the perceived “scientific respectability” of the field will continue to increase. Order Now