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Assignment 6.1: Application of Nursing Theory to Clinical Practice Paper Assignment 6.1 Application of Nursing Theory to Clinical Practice Paper Assignment 6.1: Application of Nursing Theory to Clinical Practice Paper Assignment Guidelines Review the Application Paper Instructions (PDF) for your final paper. You will submit the assignment via Turnitin; a Turnitin score less than 20% is expected. Turnitin is an online service that highlights matching text in written work. It indexes Internet sources, databases of subscription services, and written work submitted through its website. Assignments sent through Turnitin are scanned against all of its sources, and a report is generated that summarizes and highlights matching text and where it was found. It is up to instructors and students to interpret the report to determine if plagiarism occurred. You may submit your assignment to Turnitin prior to its due date once to assess your work against Turnitin’s database. You may use the Originality Report’s results to address any originality concerns in your work, and then resubmit your assignment for grading. You may only resubmit once until the assignment’s due date. Any work that has been submitted at the time the assignment is due will be considered your final submission, and this will be the submission used for grading. For additional information, visit Plagiarism Detection: Students.Links to an external site. This assignment will be graded using the Assignment 6.1: Application Paper Rubric found in your syllabus. Submission Submit your assignment and review full grading criteria on the Assignment 6.1: Application of Nursing Theory to Clinical Practice Paper page. Introduction The demands of current nursing practice require clinical reasoning and complex decision– making skills at every level of care to optimize quality health outcomes for patients. In so far, nurses are important stakeholders who integrate nursing knowledge into clinical practice depending on the health situations manifested by patients (Arif & Nasir, 2019). However, even though nurses are considered independent practitioners, they require standardized guidance on quality improvements regarding patient safety especially in scenarios that demand complex care. Information piece by Brandão et al. (2018) affirms that nursing theories are considered as a common thread in nursing practice as they act as a foundation of knowledge for clinical practice. Through the theories, nursing care turns out to be knowledge–based as they are used to develop orientations, commitments, and attitudes that are fundamental features in nursing practice. Several nursing theories influence nursing practice during patient care. Neuman’s systems model has been singled out as the theory of concern in this study (Montano, 2021). The model as developed by Betty Neuman views a patient as an open system that directly responds to stressors in an environment. The theory breaks down patient variables as psychological, developmental, physiological, spiritual, and sociocultural all of which determine how we respond to environmental stressors. According to the theory, the client system is made up of basic core structures which are protected by lines of resistance in a person (Ahmadi & Sadeghi, 2017). In this regard, the usual health level of a client is recognized by normal lines of defense which are protected by lines of resistance as defined by the integrity of the immune system in a person. However, stressors are considered intra, extra, and inter–personal but arise from both internal and external influences in the environment (Montano, 2021). According to Neuman’s System Model, when stressors from the environment invade the flexible lines of defense, the lines of resistance Kathleen Hendricks 3 in a client are activated to fight back. The scenario is known as the wellness–illness continuum and if the system of a client has sufficient energy, it will be reconstituted and restored to a normal defense line. According to Montano (2021), nurses use Neuman’s System Model to provide interventions where necessary as approaches to restore normal defense lines when stressors break or are about to invade the lines of defense of a client. Nursing intervention occurs in three different prevention modalities. In the first approach, nurses provide primary intervention which occurs before a stressor invades the defense system of a client (Leoni‐Scheiber, Mayer & Müller‐ Staub, 2019). The second approach involves secondary prevention which is an intervention administered to a client’s system upon reacting to an invading stressor. The final approach involves tertiary prevention which are adjusted processes resulting from the reconstitution of secondary prevention and moves the client back in readiness for primary prevention. Betty Neuman’s Systems Model consists of four metaparadigms as outlined below: Human being: Described as an open system that directly interacts with both internal and external forces (also known as stressors) in an environment (Montano, 2021). As a system, humans are constantly changing by moving towards illness or a state of stability. Environment: This constitutes the platform or all factors that affect a system. The environment can be internal, external, or created. Health: This is defined as a degree of system stability viewed as a continuum from wellness to illness. According to Ahmadi and Sadeghi (2017), optimal wellness exists when the needs of a system are met. However, illness exists when the needs of a system are unsatisfactory. Nonetheless, when energy needed to support the life of a system is not available, then death occurs. 4 Nursing: The main role is to identify relevant actions that can be taken to address stressors that affect a system (patient). The primary concern of nursing is to offer interventions that help a system to adjust, restore or maintain a degree of stability. It also focuses on conserving energy to avoid the death of a system. Philosophy of Nursing Practice As a nurse practitioner stationed at the emergency department of a care facility, I want to make my clients (system) feel respected, confident, and comfortable as they transit to different departments of the care facility. In this approach, I will provide individualized nursing care to patients whose lines of defense have been compromised by environmental stressors (Arif & Nasir, 2019). I will also offer self–care education on how they can cope with the pain associated with the ailment. The philosophy is defined by three tenets of ethics in nursing practice which include but are not limited to: Autonomy: In this belief, I will allow patients to decide on a range of options of care available for them. This means that patients are respected for the decision they make on how they expect health services to be administered to them. Beneficence: As for this tenet, I will strive to provide care in the best interest of the client. In other words, I will only administer nursing care that brings positive outcomes to the patient to support healing. Nonmaleficence: Using this tenet will allow me to administer nursing services that do not cause harm to patients. As such, I will avoid any nursing procedure that causes harm by omission to a patient (Brandão et al., 2018). I purpose to administer medication in its correct dosages to avoid causing harm by commission to a patient. Kathleen Hendricks 5 Clinical Scenario In my practice as a nurse, I have provided care at different sections of a health facility. However, the most intriguing part of care occurred in the emergency department which apparently is the current station of my nursing practice. The scenario occurred when a 32–year– old Caucasian male presented to the emergency room by a good Samaritan following a fatal Assignment 6.1 Application of Nursing Theory to Clinical Practice Paper Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS:Assignment 6.1: Application of Nursing Theory to Clinical Practice Paper motor vehicle accident that claimed two lives at the scene. The patient sustained multiple injuries including an obvious deformity to the left thigh and bleeding from the left leg. He was in agony and unable to bear weight. Immediately I was alerted by a security officer, I rushed to receive him by placing him on a stretcher in front of the ER. I asked one of my colleagues to activate the trauma system while I applied some pressure dressings to control bleeding. As I was taking patient into the trauma bay, I explained to him what to expect, and reassured him that his condition will be stabilized. Upon arrival to the bay, I established an IV access and medicated patient for pain while patient was being exposed and assessed simultaneously. I noticed a sigh of relief on the patient’s face and his satisfaction with the immediate care he received as he awaited inpatient admission for further medical attention. The immediate nursing procedures and care provided to the patient have a direct relationship with Neuman’s Systems Model of care. The premise is based on the argument that the system represents the patient who was exposed to multiple stressors emanating from injuries sustained from the accident (Ahmadi & Sadeghi, 2017). The patient variable was his psychological perception of pain which made him endure a lot of suffering. The environment was represented by both the internal and external stressors at the emergency department of the care facility. Health on the other hand was defined by the state of wellness manifested by the patient and from my observation, the patient experienced acute pain. 6 My philosophy of nursing practice and care was manifested when I administered immediate intervention to the patient upon arrival and while in the trauma bay. I provided ambulatory service in form of a stretcher to make the patient feel comfortable as he moved from one department to the other (Leoni‐Scheiber, Mayer & Müller‐Staub, 2019). Such an act goes hand in hand with the tenet of beneficence which advocates that nurse should do good to patients. After identifying injuries and stabilizing the patient in the trauma bay, I as well performed a minor dressing procedure on the patient, cleaned him up and applied dressing to his bleeding wound and wrapping it with a gauze. I also provided him warmth with a clean gown, a warm blanket, and a pair of footies while in the trauma bay. These actions ensured that the patient felt respected and that he was cared for at the emergency department of the care facility. Such an act is consistent with the tenet of autonomy principle of patient care in which the nurse should display utmost respect to patients regardless of their health status (Arif & Nasir, 2019). Finally, I reassured the client that his health status would be addressed amicably in the health facility. The assurance made the patient develop confidence with the healthcare team at the health facility. Such an act goes hand in hand with the principle of nonmaleficence which entails not doing any harm to the patient. Providing reassurance does not pose any harm to the patient but instead, boosts mood and alleviates stress which is important in the healing process of clients. Conclusion Nurses require theories to identify relevant patient needs and understand how to connect between accurate assessment and interventions needed by these clients to improve the quality of health outcomes. As illustrated in the preceding illustrations, Neuman’s System Model theory guided in the identification of metaparadigm related to disease manifested by the client. The first Kathleen Hendricks 7 metaparadigm identified was the patient who was the person affected by the injury and needed medical attention. The second was the assessment of stressors that were potential in inducing pain to the client after sustaining injury caused by a motor vehicle accident. The third metaparadigm was the analysis of both internal and external environments associated with the ailment of the patient. The environment played a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of the client. Finally, the fourth metaparadigm was the nursing procedures which were the interventions administered to restore the quality of health of the client. These included wound dressing, provision of ambulatory services and warmth, health education, and counseling to reassure the client on improved quality of health. Besides, the theoretical model guided in the selection of nursing interventions which were categorized as primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions to stabilize the health condition manifested by the client. The theory is essential as it instills critical thinking and reasoning skills for nurses as they administer care to patients. However, the role of theories in clinical practice cannot be ignored. Other than providing knowledge to guide clinical nursing practice, theories offer a foundation for implementing philosophies of nursing care based on the health situation manifested by patients. As such, nursing theories provide ethics on codes of practice for professionals in order to optimize quality care to patients and should never be ignored by nurses during practice. Assignment 6.1: Application Paper Rubric Criteria Ratings Pts Introduction (no heading needed) 10 to >9 pts Fully Meets Expectations Describes nursing theory clearly, metaparadigm included and discusses influence on nursing clearly. 9 to >8 pts Generally Meets Expectations Describes nursing theory clearly and metaparadigm included but does not discuss influence on nursing clearly. 8 to >5 pts Barely Meets Expectations Describes nursing theory clearly but metaparadigm not included and/or does not discuss influence on nursing clearly. 5 to >0 pts Does Not Meet Expectations Does not describe nursing theory clearly and/or metaparadigm not included and/or does not discuss influence on nursing clearly. 10 / 10 pts Philosophy of Nursing Practice (Level 2 Heading) 10 to >9 pts Fully Meets Expectations Philosophy of nursing practice clearly developed based on selected theory/model and includes at least 3 tenets/beliefs. 9 to >8 pts Generally Meets Expectations Philosophy of nursing practice clearly developed based on selected theory/model but does not include at least 3 tenets/beliefs. 8 to >5 pts Barely Meets Expectations Philosophy of nursing practice developed but not based on selected theory/model and/or does not include at least 3 tenets/beliefs. 5 to >0 pts Does Not Meet Expectations Philosophy of nursing practice not clearly developed and not based on selected theory/model, and/or does not include at least 3 tenets/beliefs. 10 / 10 pts Clinical Scenario (Level 2 Heading) 20 to >19 pts Fully Meets Expectations Clear description of clinical scenario and relationship between clinical scenario and selected theory/model; describes how philosophy is represented in scenario. 19 to >17 pts Generally Meets Expectations Clear description of clinical scenario and relationship between clinical scenario and selected theory/model but does not describe how philosophy is represented in scenario. 17 to >11 pts Barely Meets Expectations Clear description of clinical scenario but does not describe relationship between clinical scenario and selected theory/model and/or does not describe how philosophy is represented in scenario. 11 to >0 pts Does Not Meet Expectations No clear description of clinical scenario and/or does not describe relationship between clinical scenario and selected theory/model and/or does not describe how philosophy is represented in scenario. 20 / 20 pts Conclusion (Level 1 Heading) 10 to >9 pts Fully Meets Expectations Clear summary of influence of nursing theory on profession and clearly discussed metaparadigms. 9 to >8 pts Generally Meets Expectations Clear summary of influence of nursing theory on profession; discussion of metaparadigms is accurate and logical, but vague. 8 to >5 pts Barely Meets Expectations No clear summary of influence of nursing theory on profession or does not clearly discuss metaparadigms. 5 to >0 pts Does Not Meet Expectations No clear summary of influence of nursing theory on profession and does not clearly discuss metaparadigms. 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